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Chandogya Upanishad

///Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad 2014-12-13T11:00:08+00:00

Source: “The Upanishads – A New Translation” by Swami Nikhilananda

Invocation  

Om. May the different limbs of my body, my tongue, prana,  eyes, ears and my strength and also all the other sense�organs  be nourished! All, indeed, is Brahman, as is declared in the  Upanishads. May I never deny Brahman! May Brahman never  deny me! May there never be denial on my part! May all the  virtues described in the Upanishads belong to me, who am  devoted to Atman! Yea, may they all belong to me!  Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!  

Part One  

Chapter I � Meditation on Om 

1.   The syllable Om, called the Udgitha, should be meditated upon;  for people sing the Udgitha, beginning with Om.  Now follows the detailed explanation of the syllable:

2.   The essence of all these beings is the earth; the essence of the  earth is water; the essence of water is plants; the essence of  plants is a person; essence of a person is speech; the essence of  speech is the Rig�Veda; essence of the Rig�Veda is the  Sama�Veda; the essence of the Sama�Veda is the Udgitha  which is Om.

3.   That Udgitha (Om) is the best of all essences, the supreme,  deserving the highest place, the eighth.

4.   What, then, is the Rik? What is the Saman? What is the  Udgitha? This is to be considered.

5.   Speech, indeed, is the Rik; the vital breath (prana) is the  Saman; the syllable Om is the Udgitha. Speech and the prana,  or the Rik and the Saman, form a couple.

6.   And that couple become united in the syllable Om. When a pair  come together they fulfil each other�s desire.

7.   He who knows this as stated above and meditates on the  syllable Om, the Udgitha, becomes, indeed, a fulfiller of  desires.

8.   This syllable Om is used to give assent, for wherever one  assents to something, one says Om (yes). Now, what is assent is  gratification. He who knows this and meditates on the syllable  Om, the Udgitha, becomes, indeed, a gratifier of desires.

9.   By means of this syllable the threefold knowledge proceeds.  When adhvaryu priest gives an order in a sacrifice, he says Om.  When the hotri priest recites the hymn, he says Om. When the  udgatri priest sings the Saman, he says Om. All this is done for  the glory of the Imperishable Atman by the greatness of that  syllable and by its essence.

10.   It may be contended that he who knows this true meaning of  the syllable Om and he who does not, perform the same  sacrifice and therefore must reap the same fruit. But this is not  so. The results of knowledge and ignorance are different. Work  that is done with knowledge, faith and the Upanishad (i.e.  meditation on the deities) produces more powerful fruit.  This is, verily, the detailed explanation of the syllable Om.

Chapter II � Meditation on Om as the Prana 

1.   When the gods and the demons, both offspring of Prajapati,  fought with each other, the gods took hold of the Udgitha,  thinking that with this they would vanquish the demons.

2.   They (i.e. the gods) meditated on the Udgitha (Om) as the  prana which functions through the nose. But the demons  pierced it (i.e. the prana) with evil. Therefore with it (i.e. the  breath) one smells both what is pleasant�smelling and what is  foul�smelling. For the breath is pierced by evil.

3.   Then they meditated on the Udgitha as speech. But the demons  pierced it with evil. Therefore one speaks both truth and  falsehood. For speech is pierced by evil.

4.   Then they meditated on the Udgitha as the eye. But the demons  pierced it with evil. Therefore one sees both what is sightly and  what is unsightly. For the eye is pierced by evil.

5.   Then they meditated on the Udgitha as the ear. But the demons  pierced it with evil. Therefore one hears both what is worth  hearing and what is not worth hearing. For the ear is pierced by  evil.

6.   Then they meditated on the Udgitha as the mind. But the  demons pierced it with evil. Therefore one thinks both proper  and improper thoughts. For the mind is pierced by evil.

7.   Then they meditated on the Udgitha as the principal (mukhya)  prana. But as a clod of earth hitting a stone is scattered, even so  the demons were destroyed when they hit it.

8.   As a clod of earth is scattered when hitting a stone, thus will he  be scattered who wishes evil to one who knows this or who  injures him; for he is a solid stone.

9.   With this (i.e. the principal vital breath) one does not discern  what pleasant�smelling and what is foul�smelling; for it is  unsmitten by evil. Whatever a person eats or drinks with it (the  principal vital breath) supports the other pranas. That is why  they depart when, at the time death, it no longer supports them  by eating and drinking. It opens the mouth at the time of death  as if the dying man wished to eat.

10�13.   Angira meditated on the Udgitha as the principal prana. people  call it (i.e. the prana) Angiras, because it is the essence (rasa) of  the limbs (anga).  Brihaspati meditated on the Udgitha as the principal prana.  People call it (the prana) Brihaspati, because speech is great  (brihat) and it is the lord (pati) of speech.  Ayasya meditated on the Udgitha as the principal prana. People  call it (the prana) as Ayasya; because it comes (ayate) from the  mouth (asya).  Vaka, the son of Dalbhya, knew it (the prana); he became the  udgatri priest of the sacrificers dwelling in the Naimisha forest.  By singing the Udgitha he fulfilled all their desires.

14.   He who knows this as described above and meditates upon the  imperishable Udgitha (Om) obtains all his desires by singing  the Udgitha.  So much for the Udgitha as meditates on with reference to the  body.

Chapter III � Meditation on the Udgitha as the Sun and  the Vyana 

1.   Now is described the meditation on the Udgitha with reference  to the gods:  One should meditate on the Udgitha as the sun who gives  warmth. When he (the sun) rises he sings the Udgitha for the  benefit of all creatures. When he rises he destroys darkness and  fear. He who knows this becomes the destroyer of darkness and  fear.

2.   This prana and that sun are the same. This is warm and that is  warm. This they call svara (what goes out) and that, pratyasvara  (what returns). Therefore one should meditate on the Udgitha  as this and that.

3.   One should meditate on the Udgitha as the vyana. That which  one breathes out is the prana and that which one breathes in is  the apana. That which is the junction of the prana and the apana  is the Vyana. This vyana is speech. Therefore when one utters  speech one stops the prana and the apana.

4.   That which is speech is the Rik. Therefore when a man utters a  Rik he neither breathes out nor breathes in. That which is the  Rik is the Saman. Therefore when a man sings a Saman, he  neither breathes out nor breathes in. That which is the Saman is  the Udgitha. Therefore when a man sings the Udgitha he  neither breathes out nor breathes in.

5.   And other works also which require strength, such as the  kindling of fire by rubbing, running a race and stringing a  strong bow, are performed without breathing out or breathing  in. Therefore one should meditate on the Udgitha as the vyana.

6.   One should meditate on the letters of the word Udgitha (i.e. ut,  gi and tha). Ut is the prana, for a man rises (uttishthati) by  means of the prana. Gi is speech, for speeches are called girah.  Tha is food, for all this subsists (sthita) on food.

7.   Ut is heaven, gi the mid�region and tha the earth. Ut is the  sun, gi the air and tha fire. Ut is the Sama�Veda, gi the  Yajur�Veda and tha the Rig�Veda. To him who thus  meditates speech yields milk and milk is speech. He who  knows this and meditates on the letters of the Udgitha becomes  the possessor of food and the eater of food.

8.   Next follows the fulfilment of prayers. One should thus  meditate on the object one wishes to obtain through meditation:  he (i.e. the udgatri priest) should meditate on the Saman with  which he is going chant the praise.

9.   He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the Rik in which that  Saman occurs, on the rishi to whom it was revealed and on the  deity whom he is going to praise.

10.   He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the metre in which  he is going to chant the praise; he should meditate on the hymn  by which he is going to chant the praise.

11.   He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the quarter of space  facing which he is going to chant the praise.

12.   Finally, he (the udgatri priest) should meditate on himself and  then on the object desired and chant the praise correctly. Thus  will be quickly fulfilled for him the desire, desiring which he  may offer the hymn of praise, yea, desiring which he may offer  the hymn of praise.

Chapter IV � Meditation on Om as Fearlessness and  Immortality 

1.   The syllable Om, called the Udgitha, should be meditated upon;  for people sing the Udgitha, beginning with Om.  Now follows the detailed explanation of this syllable.

2.   The gods, afraid of death, entered upon the threefold  knowledge. They covered themselves with the metrical hymns.  Because they covered (acchadayan) themselves with the  hymns, the hymns are called chhandas.

3.   As a fisherman might observe a fish in shallow water, so death  observed the gods in the Rik, the Yajus and the Saman. They  too came to know this, rose from the Rik, the Yajus and the  Saman and entered the Svara (Om) alone.

4.   When a man has mastered the Rig�Veda he loudly utters Om;  he does the same when he has mastered the Sama�Veda and  the Yajur�Veda. The Svara is the syllable Om; it is immortal  and fearless. The gods, by entering it, became immortal and  fearless.

5.   He who, knowing this, sings the praise of the syllable Om  enters this same syllable, called the Svara, which is immortal  and fearless. Having entered it, he becomes immortal as the  gods are immortal.

Chapter V � Meditation on Om as the Sun and the Prana 

1.   Now, verily, that which is the Udgitha is the Pranava; that  which is the Pranava is the Udgitha. Yonder sun is the Udgitha.  It is the Pranava, because it moves along uttering Om.

2.   Kaushitaki in olden times said to his son: “I sang the praise of  the sun regarding it as one with its rays; therefore you are my  only son. Meditate on the rays and the sun as different from  each another and you will have many sons.”  So much with reference to the gods.

3.   Now with reference to the body:  One should meditate on the Udgitha as the principal prana, for  (i.e. the prana) moves in the body uttering Om.

4.   Kaushitaki in olden times said to his son: “I sang the praise of  the principal prana alone; therefore you are my only son.  Meditate on the Udgitha as the manifold prana and you will  have many sons.”

5.   Now, verily, that which is the Udgitha is the Pranava; that  which is the Pranava is the Udgitha. He (i.e. the udgatri priest)  who knows this, rectifies from the seat of the hotri priest any  mistake committed by him (the udgatri priest), yea he rectifies  it.

Chapter VI � The Luminous Person in the Solar Orb 

1.   This earth is the Rik and fire is the Saman. This Saman (i.e.  fire) rests on that Rik (i.e. the earth). Therefore the Saman is  sung resting on the Rik. Sa is the earth, ama is fire; thus they  (the earth and fire) are designated as Sama.

2.   The mid�region is the Rik and the air is the Saman. This  Saman (i.e. the air) rests on that Rik (i.e. the mid�region).  Therefore the Saman is sung, resting on the Rik. Sa is the  mid�region, ama is the air; thus they (the mid�region and the  air) are designated as Sama.

4.   The stars are the Rik and the moon is the Saman. This Saman  (i.e. the moon) rests on that Rik (i.e. the stars). Therefore the  Saman is sung, resting on the Rik. Sa is the stars, ama is the  moon; thus they (the stars and the moon) are designated as  Sama.

5.   Now, the white radiance of the sun is the Rik and its blue  intense darkness is the Saman. This Saman (i.e. the darkness)  rests on that Rik (i.e. the radiance). Therefore the Saman is  sung, resting on the Rik.  6�

7.   Sa is the white radiance of the sun, ama is its blue intense  darkness; thus they (the radiance and the darkness) are  designated as Sama.  Now, the golden person who is seen in the sun, who has a  golden beard and golden hair, who is golden to the very tips of  his nails�his eyes are like a lotus flower, red as the rump of a  monkey.  His name is Ut, for he has risen (udita) above all evil. He, too,  who knows this rises above all evil.

Chapter VII � The Person in the Eye 

1.   Now with reference to the body:  Speech is the Rik and the prana is the Saman. This Saman (the  prana) rests on that Rik (speech). Therefore the Saman is sung,  resting on the Rik. Sa is speech, ama is the prana; thus they  (speech and the prana) are designated as Sama.

2.   The eye is the Rik and the atman is the Saman. This Saman (the  atman) rests on that Rik (speech). Therefore the Saman is sung,  resting on the Rik. Sa is the eye, ama is the atman; thus they  (the eye and the atman) are designated as Saman.

3.   The ear is the Rik and the mind is the Saman. This Saman (the  mind) rests on that Rik (the ear). Therefore the Saman is sung,  resting on the Rik. Sa is the ear, ama is the mind; thus they (the  ear and the mind) are designated as Sama.

4.   Now, the white radiance of the eye is the Rik and its blue  intense darkness is the Saman. This Saman (darkness) rests on  that Rik (radiance). Therefore the Saman is sung, resting on the  Rik. Sa is the white radiance of the eye, ama is its blue intense  darkness; thus they (the radiance and the darkness) are  designated as Sama.

5.   Now, the person who is seen in the eye is the Rik, he is the  Saman, he is the Uktha, he is the Yajus, he is Brahman. The  form of this person in the eye is the same as the form of that  person in the sun. The joints this person in the eye are the same  as the joints of that person in the sun; the name of this one (Ut)  is the same as the name of that one.

6.   He is the lord of the worlds which spread beneath that (i.e. the  eye) and also of all the wishes of men. Therefore all who sing  to the vina sing of him and from him they obtain wealth.

7.   He who, knowing this (i.e. the Udgitha), sings the Saman, sings  both. Through that (i.e. the person in the sun) he obtains the  world beyond that (i.e. the sun) and the wishes of the gods.  8�

9.   Likewise, through this (i.e. the person in the eye), he obtains  the worlds that spread beneath that (i.e. the eye) and all the  wishes of men.  Therefore an udgatri priest who knows this may say to the  sacrificer for whom he acts as priest:  “What desire of yours shall I fulfil by singing?”  For he who, knowing this, sings the Saman is able to fulfil  wishes through his singing of the Saman, yea, through his  singing of the Saman.

Chapter VIII � The Story of the Pravahana (I) 

1.   There were three men versed in the Udgitha: Silaka the son of  Salavat, Chaikitayana of the line of Dalbhya and Pravahana the  son of Jivala. They said: “We are indeed versed in the Udgitha.  Let us have a discussion of the Udgitha.”

2.   “Let it be so,” they said and sat down. Then Pravihana the son  Jivala said: “Revered Sirs, you speak first and I shall listen to  what the two brahmins have to say.”

3.   Then Silaka the son of Salavat said to Chaikitayana of the line  Dalbhya: “Well, may I question you?”  “Do ask,” he said.

4�5.   “What is the support of the Saman?”  “Tone (svara),” he replied.  “What is the support of tone?”  “The prana (vital breath),” he replied.  “What is the support of the prana?”  “Food,” he replied. “What is the support of food?”  “Water,” he replied.  “What is the support of water?”  “Yonder world (heaven),” he replied.  “What is the support of yonder world?”  “Let no one carry the Saman beyond the heavenly world. We  place the Saman in the heavenly world, for the Saman is  praised as heaven.”

6.   Then Silaka the son of Salavat said to Chaikitayana of the line  of Dalbhya: “O Dalbhya your Saman is not firmly established.  If at this time anyone who knew the support of the Saman were  to say: �Your head shall fall off;� surely your head would fall  off.”

7.   “Well then, revered Sir, let me learn it from you,” said  Chaikitayana.  “Learn it,” replied Silaka.  “What is the support of that world?”  “This world,” he replied.  “What is the support of this world?”  “Let no one carry the Saman beyond this world, which is its  support.  We place the Saman in this world as its support, for the Saman  is praised as the support (i.e. this world).”

8.   Then said Pravahana the son of Jivala: O son of Salavat, your  Saman (i.e. this earth) has an end. If at this time anyone who  knew the support of the Saman were to say: �Your head shall  fall off,� surely your head would fall off.”  “Well then, let me learn this from you, revered Sir,” said  Silaka.  “Learn it,” said Pravahana.

Chapter IX � The Story of Pravahana (II) 

1.   “What is the support of this world?” asked Silaka.  “The akasa,” said Pravahana. “For all these beings are created  from the akasa and return to the akasa. The akasa is greater  than these; therefore the akasa is the supreme support.”

2.   This is the Udgitha (Om), the most excellent; this is endless.  He who, knowing this, meditates on the Udgitha obtains the  most excellent life and wins the most excellent worlds.  3�

4.   Atidhanvan the son of Sunaka, having taught this Udgitha to  Udarasandilya, said: “As long as any of your descendants know  this Udgitha, their life shall be the most excellent in this world  and likewise in the other world.”  He who thus knows the Udgitha and meditates on it�his life  shall be the most excellent in this world and likewise in the  other world, yea, the other world.

Chapter X � The Story of Ushasti (I) 

1.   When the crops of the Kurus were destroyed by thunderstorms,  Ushasti the son of Chakra, with his child�wife, lived in a  deplorable condition in the village of a man who owned an  elephant.

2.   He (Ushasti) begged food from the owner of the elephant, who  was eating some wretched beans. He (the owner of the  elephant) said: “I have nothing but what is set before me.”

3.   Ushasti said: “Give me these.”  He gave the beans and said: “Here is some water left over from  my drinking.”  Ushasti said: “If I drink this, I will then be drinking what has  been left by another.”

4.   The owner of the elephant said: “Were not those beans also left  over and therefore unclean?”  Ushasti replied: “I should not have lived if I had not eaten  them; but I can get water wherever I like.”

5.   Having himself eaten, Ushasti gave his wife what was left. But  she, having eaten before, took them (i.e. the beans) and put  them away.

6.   Next morning, on awaking, he said: “Alas, if I could get even  little a to eat, I might earn some money. The king over here is  going to perform a sacrifice; he would choose me for all the  priestly offices.”

7.   His wife said to him: “Here, my husband, are the beans.” After  eating them, he went to the sacrifice that was about to be  performed.

8.   He saw there the assembled udgatri priests and sat near them in  place where they would sing the hymns. He said to the prastotri  priest:

9.   “O prastotri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to  Prastiva, you sing the Prastiva, your head will fall off”

10�11.   In the same manner he addressed the udgatri priest: “O udgatri  priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha,  you sing the Udgitha, your head will fall off.”  In the same manner he addressed the pratihartri priest: “O  pratihartri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to  the Pratihara, you sing the Pratihara, your head will fall off.”  They all stopped performing their duties and sat in silence.  

Chapter XI � The Story of Ushasti (II) 

1.   The sacrificer said to him (Ushasti): “I should like to know who  you are, revered Sir.”  “I am Ushasti the son of Chakra,” he replied.

2.   He (the sacrificer) said: “Revered Sir, I looked for you to  perform all these priestly offices, but not finding you, Sir, I  have chosen others.”

3.   “But now, Sir, please take up all the priestly offices.”  “So be it,” said Ushasti, “but let these priests, with my  permission, sing the hymns of praise. You will, however, give  me as much wealth as you give them.”  “So be it,” said the sacrificer.

4.   Thereupon the prastotri priest approached him and said: “Sir,  you said to me: �O prastotri priest, if without knowing the deity  that belongs to the Prastava, you sing the Prastava, your head  will fall off.� Which is that deity?”

5.   Ushasti said: “The prana is that deity. For all these beings  merge in the prana alone and from the prana alone do they rise.  This is deity which belongs to the Prastava. If without knowing  him you chanted the Prastava after having been cursed by me,  your head would have fallen off.”

6.   Then the udgatri priest approached him and said: “Sir, you said  to me: �O udgatri priest, if without knowing the deity that  belongs to the Udgitha, you sing the Udgitha, your head will  fall off.� Which is that deity?”

7.   Ushasti said: “The sun is that deity. For all these beings praise  the sun which is high up. This is the deity which belongs to the  Udgitha. If without knowing him you had chanted the Udgitha  after having been cursed by me, your head would have fallen  off.”

8.   Then the pratihartri priest approached him and said: “Sir, you  said to me: �O pratihartri priest, if without knowing the deity  that belongs to the Pratihara, you sing the Pratihara, your head  will fall off.� Which is that deity?”

9.   Ushasti said: “Food is that deity. For all these beings take food  and live. This is the deity that belongs to the Pratihara. If  without knowing him you had chanted the Pratihara after  having been cursed by me, your head would have fallen off.”

Chapter XII � The Udgitha of the Dogs 

1.   Now follows the Udgitha of the dogs:  One day, Vaka the son of Dalbhya, or as he was also called,  Glava son of Mitra, went forth to study the Vedas.

2.   A white dog appeared before him. Other dogs, gathering  around, said to him (i.e. the white dog): “Revered Sir, please  sing for us, so we may obtain food; we are hungry.”

3.   He (the white dog) said to them: “Come to me here tomorrow  morning.” Vaka the son of Dalbhya, or as he was also called,  Glava son of Mitra, kept watch.

4.   Just as the priests move along, holding to one another, when  they are about to sing praises with the Vahishpavamana hymn,  so did the dogs move along. Then they sat down and uttered the  syllable Him.

5.   Om. Let us eat! Om. Let us drink! Om. Let the sun, who is the  luminous deity (deva), the giver of rain (Varuna), the lord of  creatures (Prajapati), bring food here!  Now a prayer to the sun: O lord of food, bring food here, bring  it here. Om.

Chapter XIII � The Mystical Meaning of the Stobha  Syllables 

1.   This Earth is verily the syllable hau; the air is the syllable hai;  the moon is the syllable atha; the self is the syllable iha; the fire  is the syllable i.

2.   The sun is the syllable u; the invocation is the syllable e; the  Visve�devas are the syllable au�ho�i; Prajapati is the  syllable him; the prana the syllable svara; food is the syllable  ya; Virat is the syllable vak.

3.   Indefinable is the thirteenth stobha, namely, the variable  syllable hum.

4.   To him who knows this secret knowledge of the Samans,  speech yields milk and milk is speech. He becomes the  possessor of food and the eater of food�he who knows this,  yea, he who knows this.

Part Two  

Chapter 1 � Meditation on the Fivefold Saman (I) 

1.   Om. Meditation on the whole of the Saman is good. Whatever  is good, people say it is Saman; and whatever is not good,  people say it is not Saman.

2.   Thus people say: “He approached him with Saman,” that is to  say, “He approached him in a becoming manner.” Again they  say: “He approached him without Saman,” that is to say, “He  approached him in an unbecoming manner.”

3.   And they also say: “Truly this is Saman for us,” that is to say,  “It is good for us,” when it is good. Again, they say: “Truly this  is not Saman for us,” that is to say, “It is not good for us,” when  it is not good.

4.   He who, knowing this, meditates on the Saman as good�all  good qualities will approach him quickly, ay, they will accrue  to him.

Chapter II � Meditation on the Fivefold Saman (II) 

1.   One should meditate on the fivefold Saman as the five worlds.  The syllable Him is the earth, the Prastava fire, the Udgitha the  sky, the Pratihara the sun, the Nidhana heaven. This is with  reference to the ascending order.

2.   Now with reference to the descending order:  The syllable Him is heaven, the Prastava the sun, the Udgitha  the sky, the Pratihara fire, the Nidhana the earth.

3.   The worlds in the ascending and descending orders belong to  him who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Saman as the  worlds.

Chapter III � Meditation on the Fivefold Saman as Rain 

1.   One should meditate on the fivefold Saman as rain. The  syllable Him is the wind that blows from the east, the Prastava  is the cloud that forms, the Udgitha is what rains, the Pratihara  is the lightning and the thunder.

2.   The Nidhana is the cessation. It rains for him whenever he  desires and he brings rain for others even when there is no rain  who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Saman as rain.

Chapter IV � Meditation on the Fivefold Saman as Water 

1.   One should meditate on the fivefold Saman in all the waters.  When the clouds gather, that is the syllable Him; when it rains,  that the Prastava; the rivers which flow to the east, these are the  Udgitha; the rivers which flow to the west, these are the  Pratihara; the ocean is Nidhana.

2.   He does not die in water and he becomes rich in water who,  knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Saman in all the waters.

Chapter V � Meditation on the Fivefold Saman as the  Seasons 

1.   One should meditate on the fivefold Saman as the seasons. The  syllable Him is the spring, the Prastava the summer, the  Udgitha the rainy season, the Pratihara the autumn, the Nidhana  the winter.

2.   The seasons belong to him and he becomes rich in seasons  who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Saman as the  seasons.

Chapter VI � Meditation on the Fivefold Saman in  Animals 

1.   One should meditate on the fivefold Saman in animals. The  syllable Him is goats, the Prastava sheep, the Udgitha cows, the  Pratihara horses, the Nidhana man.

2.   Animals belong to him as objects of enjoyment and he becomes  rich in animals who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold  Saman in animals.

Chapter VII � Meditation on the Fivefold Saman as the  Senses 

1.   One should meditate on the fivefold Saman, which is the most  excellent, as the pranas (senses). The syllable Him is smell (i.e.  the nose), the Prastava speech (the tongue), the Udgitha sight  (the eye), the Pratihara hearing (the ear), the Nidhana the mind.  These are each greater than the preceding.

2.   The most excellent objects belong to him, nay, he conquers the  most excellent worlds who, knowing this, meditates on the  fivefold Saman, which is the most excellent, as the senses.

Chapter VIII � Meditation on the Sevenfold Saman in  Speech 

1.   Now for the sevenfold Saman:  One should meditate on the sevenfold Saman in speech. When  there is the syllable Hum in speech, that is the syllable Him;  likewise Pra is the Prastava, A is the Adi.

2.   Ud is the Udgitha, Pra the Pratihara, Upa the Upadrava, Ni the  Nidhana.

3.   For him speech yields milk, which is the milk of speech and he  becomes rich in food and the eater of food who, knowing this,  meditates on the sevenfold Saman in speech.

Chapter IX � Meditation on the Sevenfold Saman as the  Sun 

1.   One should meditate on the sevenfold Saman as yonder sun.  The sun is the Saman because he is always the same (sama). He  is the Saman because he makes everyone cherish the same  thought: “He faces me,” “He faces me.”

2.   One should know that all beings depend upon him (i.e. the sun).  What he is before his rising is the syllable Him. The animals  depend upon it (i.e. Him). Therefore the animals say “Him”  before the sunrise, for they partake of the syllable Him of the  Saman (sun).

3.   What he (the sun) is just after he has risen, that is the Prastava.  Men depend upon it. Therefore men love praise (prastuti) and  eulogy, for they partake of the Prastava of that Saman.

4.   What he is when the rays go forth, that is the Adi. Birds depend  upon It. Therefore birds hold themselves without support in the  sky and fly about, for they partake of the Adi of that Saman.

5.   What he is just at midday, that is the Udgitha. The devas (gods)  are dependent upon it. Therefore they are the best of the  offspring of Prajapati, for they partake of the Udgitha of that Sa  man.

6.   What he is after midday and before afternoon, that is the  Pratihara. The foetuses depend upon it. Therefore they are held  in the womb after being conceived and do not fall, for they  partake of the Pratihara of the Saman.

7.   What he is after the afternoon and before sunset, that is the  Upadrava. The animals of the forest depend upon it. Therefore  they run (upadravanti) to the forest and their caves when they  see a man, for partake of the Upadrava of that Saman.

8.   What he is just after the sunset, that is the Nidhana. The Manes  depend upon it. Therefore they put them (i.e. the Manes) down  (nidadhati), for they partake of the Nidhana of that Saman.  Thus a man meditates on the sevenfold Saman as the sun.

Chapter X � Meditation on the Sevenfold Saman through  the Number of Syllables

1.   Next one should meditate on the sevenfold Saman which has a  uniform number of syllables and which leads beyond death:  The word Himkara has three syllables, the word Prastava has  three syllables.  Hence they are equal (sama).

2.   The word Adi has two syllables and the word Pratihara has four  syllables. If we take one syllable from Pratihara and join to  Adi, they become equal (sama).  3�

4.   The word Udgitha has three syllables and the word Upadrava  has four syllables. With three and three syllables they should be  equal. One syllable being left out, it becomes trisyllabic. Hence  the equality (sama).  The word Nidhana has three syllables; therefore it is equal.  These make twenty�two syllables of the sevenfold Saman.

5.   With twenty�one syllables he reaches the sun; for the sun is  the twenty�first from here. With the twenty�second he  conquers what is beyond the sun; that plane is blessed and free  from grief.

6.   He obtains here victory over the sun (death); and to him comes  victory higher than the victory over the sun who, knowing this,  meditates on the sevenfold Saman which has a uniform number  syllables and which leads beyond death, yea, who meditates  upon the sevenfold Saman.

Chapter XI � Meditation on the Gayatra Saman 

1.   The syllable Him is the mind, the Prastava speech, the Udgitha  sight, the Pratihara hearing, the Nidhana breath (the prana).  This is the Gayatra Saman, as interwoven in the five pranas.

2.   He who thus knows this Gayatra Saman interwoven in the  pranas preserves his sense�organs intact, reaches the full  length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and  cattle, great in fame. For him who meditates on the Gayatra  Saman the injunction is: “Be high�minded.”  Chapter XII � Meditation on the Rathantara Sama

1.   The rubbing of the fire�sticks is the syllable Him; the rising of  smoke is the Prastava; the burning is the Udgitha; the forming  of embers is the Pratihara; the going out is the Nidhana. This is  the Rathantara Saman as interwoven in fire.

2.   He who thus knows this Rathantara Saman as interwoven in  fire becomes radiant with the light of Brahman and endowed  with a good appetite; he reaches the full length of life, lives  brightly, becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame.  For him the injunction is: “Do sip water or spit before the fire.”

Chapter XIII � Meditation on the Vamadevya Saman 

1.   A man’s beckoning to a woman is the syllable Him; his  gratifying her is the Prastava; his lying with her is the Pratihara;  his spending time with her is the Nidhana; and the finishing of  the sexual act is also the Nidhana. This is the Vamadevya  Saman as interwoven in sexual intercourse.

2.   He who thus knows the Vamadevya Saman as interwoven in  sexual intercourse does not suffer from the pang of separation  and procreates from every intercourse; he reaches the full  length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and  cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is: “Do not reject a  woman who comes to you seeking intercourse”.

Chapter XIV � Meditation on the Brihat Saman 

1.   The rising of the sun is the syllable Him; the risen sun is the  Prastava; the midday sun is the Udgitha; the afternoon sun is  Pratihara; the setting sun is the Nidhana. This is the Brihat  Saman as interwoven in the sun.

2.   He who thus knows the Brihat Saman as interwoven in the  becomes radiant and endowed with a good appetite; he reaches  the full length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children  and cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is: “Do not  decry the burning sun.”

Chapter XV � Meditation on the Vairupa Saman 

1.   The gathering of the mists is the syllable Him; the forming of  clouds is the Prastava; the raining is the Udgitha; the flashing  and thundering are the Pratihara; the ceasing of the rain is the  Nidhana. This is the Vairupa Saman as interwoven in the  clouds.

2.   He who thus knows the Vairupa Saman as interwoven in the  clouds obtains cattle of various forms and of beautiful form; he  reaches the full length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in  children and cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is:  “Do not decry the rain.”

Chapter XVI � Meditation on the Vairaja Saman 

1.   The syllable Him is the spring, the Prastava the summer, the  Udgitha the rainy season, the Pratihara the autumn, the Nidhana  the winter. This is the Vairaja Saman as interwoven in the  seasons.

2.   He who thus knows the Vairaja Saman as interwoven in the  seasons shines through children, cattle and the light of  Brahman; he reach the full length of life, lives brightly,  becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame. For him the  injunction is: “Do not decry the seasons.”

Chapter XVII � Meditation on the Sakvari Saman 

1.   The syllable Him is the earth, the Prastava the sky, the Udgitha  heaven, the Pratihara the quarters, the Nidhana the sea. This is  the Sakvari Saman as interwoven in the worlds.

2.   He who thus knows the Sakvari Saman as interwoven in the  worlds becomes the possessor of the worlds; he reaches the full  length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and  cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is: “Do not decry  the worlds.”

Chapter XVIII � Meditation on the Revati Saman 

1.   The syllable Him is goats, the Prastava sheep, the Udgitha  cows, the Pratihara horses, the Nidhana man. This is the Revati  Saman interwoven in animals.

2.   He who thus knows these Revati Samans as interwoven in  animals becomes the possessor of animals; he reaches the full  length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and  cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is: “Do not decry  animals.”

Chapter XIX � Meditation on the Yajnayajniya Saman 

1.   The syllable Him is hair, the Prastava skin, the Udgitha flesh,  the Pratihara bone, the Nidhana marrow. This is the  Yajnayajniya Saman as interwoven in the members of the body.

2.   He who thus knows the Yajnayajniya Saman as interwoven in  the members of the body becomes possessed of limbs; he is not  crippled in any limb, he reaches the full length of life, lives  brightly, becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame.  For him the injunction is: “For one year do not eat meat” or ”Do  not eat meat at all.”

Chapter XX � Meditation on the Rajana Saman

1.   The syllable Him is fire, the Prastava air, the Udgitha the sun,  the Pratihara the stars, the Nidhana the moon. This is the  Rajana Saman as interwoven in the gods.

2.   He who thus knows the Rajana Saman as interwoven in the  gods obtains the same world as the gods, acquires the same  prosperity as theirs and realizes union with them; he reaches the  full length of lives brightly, becomes great in children and  cattle, great in fame. him the injunction is: “Do not decry the  brahmins.”

Chapter XXI � Meditation on the Saman as Interwoven in  Everything 

1.   The syllable Him is the three Vedas; the Prastava is these three  worlds; the Udgitha is fire (Agni), air (Vayu) and the sun  (Aditya); the Pratihara is the stars, the birds and the rays; the  Nidhana is the serpents, the gandharvas and the Manes. This is  the Saman as interwoven in everything.

2.   He who thus knows this Saman as interwoven in everything  becomes everything.

3.   On this there is the following verse: “There are the fivefold  three. Greater than these or besides these there is nothing.”

4.   He who knows this, knows everything. All regions bring him  gifts.

Chapter XXII � The different notes employed in the  Chanting of the Saman 

1.   An Udgatri priest thinks thus: “I choose the deep�sounding  note of the Saman, which is good for the cattle and which  belongs to fire (Agni). The undefined note belongs to Prajapati,  the defined note to Soma (the moon), the soft and smooth note  to Vayu (the air), the smooth and strong note to Indra, the  heron�like note to Brihaspati and dull note to Varuna.” Let a  man cultivate all these, avoiding, however, the note of Varuna.

2.   A man should sing, wishing that by his song he may secure  immortality for the gods: “May I obtain by my song oblations  (svadha) for the Manes, hope for men, grass and water for  cattle, heaven for the sacrificer and food for myself.” Thus  reflecting on all these in his mind, he (the udgatri priest) should  chant the praises without making mistakes in pronunciation etc.

3.   All vowels belong to the different parts of Indra’s body, all  sibilants to Prajapati, all consonants to Mrityu (death). If  someone should reprove him (i.e. the udgatri priest who knows  this) regarding the pronunciation of vowels, let him say: “I  went to Indra for my refuge when pronouncing my vowels. He  will answer you.”

4.   And if someone should reprove him for his sibilants, let him  say: “I went to Prajapati for my refuge. He will smash you.”  And if someone should reprove him for his consonants, let him  say” I went to Mrityu for my refuge. He will burn you to  ashes.”

5.   All vowels should be pronounced with resonance and strength  and with the thought on the part of the singer: “May I impart  strength to Indra (the prana).” All the sibilants should be  pronounced full�without being swallowed or thrown out and  with the thought: “May I give myself to Prajapati.” All  consonants should be pronounced slowly and without mixing  them with the others and with the thought: “May I withdraw  myself from death.”

Chapter XXIII � Praise of Om Unassociated with any  Ritual

1.   There are three divisions of dharma: Sacrifice, study and  charity form the first. Austerity is the second. Dwelling in the  house of the teacher as a brahmacharin, always mortifying the  body in the house of the teacher, is the third. All those who  practise these dharmas attain the worlds of the virtuous. But  one who is established in Brahman obtains Immortality.

2.   Prajapati brooded on the worlds. From them, thus brooded  upon, there was revealed in his heart the threefold knowledge.  He brooded on it and from it, thus brooded upon, there issued  forth these syllables: Bhuh, Bhuvah and Svah.

3.   He brooded on them (the three syllables) and from them, thus  brooded upon, there issued forth Om. As all leaves are held  together by a midrib, so is all speech held together by Om  (brahman). Om is all thus, yea, On is all this.

Chapter XXIV � The Different Planes attained by the  Sacrificer  

1�2.   The expounders of Brahman (i.e. the Vedas) ask: “Since the  morning oblation belongs to the Vasus, the midday oblation to  the Rudras and the third (i.e. evening) oblation to the Adityas  and the Visve�devas,  “Where, then, is the world of the sacrificer?” He who does not  know this, how can he perform the sacrifice? Only he who  knows should perform it.  

3�4.   Before beginning the morning chant, the sacrificer, sitting  behind the Garhapatya Fire and facing the north, sings the  Saman addressed to the Vasus:  “O Fire! Open the door of the earth�world. Let us see thee,  that we may rule this earth. 

5�6.   Then the sacrificer offers an oblation, reciting thus: “Adoration  to Agni, who dwells in the earth�world! Secure this world for  me, the sacrificer. That is the world for the sacrificer.  “I, the sacrificer, will go thither when this life is over. Svaha!”  Afterwards the sacrificer chants: “Cast away the bolt of the  earth�world.” Having said this, he rises. To him the Vasus  offer the world connected with the morning oblation.  

7�8.   Before beginning the midday oblation, the sacrificer, sitting  behind the Dakshina Fire and facing the north, sings the Saman  addressed to the Rudras:  “O Fire! Open the door of the sky�world. Let us see thee, that  we may rule wide in the sky�world.”  

9�10.   Then the sacrificer offers an oblation, reciting thus: “Adoration  to Vayu, who dwells in the sky�world! Secure this world for  me, the sacrificer. That is the world for the sacrificer.  “I, the sacrificer, will go thither when this life is over. Svaha!”  Afterwards the sacrificer chants: “Cast away the bolt of the  sky�world.” Having said this, he rises. To him the Rudras  offer the world connected with the midday oblation.  11�

13.   Before beginning the third (i.e. evening) oblation, the sacrificer,  sitting behind the Ahavaniya Fire and facing the north, sings  the two Samans addressed to the Adityas and the Visve�  devas:  “O Fire! Open the door of the heaven�world. Let us see thee,  that we may rule supreme in heaven.” This is addressed to the  Adityas.  Next the Saman addressed to the Visve�devas: “O Fire! Open  the door of the heaven�world. Let us see thee, that we may  rule supreme in heaven.”

14�15.   Then the sacrificer offers an oblation, reciting thus: “Adoration  to Adityas and the Visve�devas, who dwell in the heaven�  world! Secure this world for me, the sacrificer. That is the  world for the sacrificer.  “I, the sacrificer, will go thither when this life is over. Svaha!  Afterwards the sacrificer chants: “Cast away the bolt of the  heaven�world.” Having said this, he rises.

16.   To him the Adityas and the Visve�devas offer the world  connected with the third oblation. He (the sacrificer) who  knows this knows the measure of the sacrifice, yea, he knows  it.

Part Three

Chapter 1 � The Honey�Doctrine (Rig�Veda) 

1.   Yonder sun is, verily, the honey of the gods. Heaven is the  cross�beam. The mid�region is the hive. The particles of  water�vapours drawn by the sun through its rays are the eggs.

2�3.   The eastern rays of the sun are the eastern honey�cells. The  Rik�verses are the bees. The ritual laid down in the Rig�  Veda is the flower. The water of the sacrificial libations is the  nectar of the flower.  These Riks heated the Rig�Veda. From it, thus heated, issued  forth�as its essence�fame, radiance of the body, vigour of  the senses, virility and the food that is eaten.

4.   That essence flowed forth and went toward the sun and that  forms what is called the red colour of the rising sun.

Chapter II � The Honey�Doctrine (Yajur�Veda) 

1.   The southern rays of the sun are the southern honey�cells. The  Yajus�verses are the bees. The ritual laid down in the Yajur�  Veda is the flower. The water of the sacrificial libation is the  nectar of the flower.

2.   These Yajus�verses heated the Yajur�Veda. From it, thus  heated, issued forth�as its essence�fame, radiance of the  body, vigour of the senses, virility and the food that is eaten.

3.   That essence flowed forth and went toward the sun. That forms  what is called the white colour of the sun.

Chapter III � The Honey�Doctrine (Sama�Veda) 

1.   The western rays of the sun are the western honey�cells. The  Saman�verses are the bees. The Sama�Veda is the flower.  The water is the nectar.

2.   The Samans heated the Sama�Veda. From it, thus heated,  issued forth�as its essence�fame, radiance, vigour of the  senses, virility and the food that is eaten.

3.   That flowed forth and went toward the sun. called the dark  colour of the sun.

Chapter IV � The Honey�Doctrine (Atharva�Veda) 

1.   The northern rays of the sun are the northern honey�cells. The  verses of the Atharvangirasa are the bees. The Itihasa�purana  is the flower. The water is the nectar.

2.   These very hymns of the Atharvangirasa heated the Itihasa�  purana. From it, thus heated, issued forth�as its essence�  fame, radiance, vigour of the senses, virility and the food that is  eaten.

3.   That flowed forth and went toward the sun. That forms what is  called the extremely dark colour of the sun.

Chapter V � The Honey�Doctrine (Continued) 

1.   Now, the upward rays of the sun are the honey�cells above.  The secret teachings of the Upanishads are the bees. Brahman  (Om) is flower. The water is the nectar.

2.   These secret teachings as the bees heated Brahman (Om). From  It, thus heated, issued forth�as Its essence�fame, radiance,  vigour of the senses, virility and the food that is eaten.

3.   That flowed forth and went towards the sun. That forms what  appears to stir in the centre of the sun.

4.   These different colours in the sun are the essences of the  essences; for the Vedas are the essences and these colours are,  again, their essences. These are the nectars of the nectars; for  the Vedas are the nectars (i.e. immortal) and of them these  colours in the sun are the nectars.

Chapter VI � Meditation on the Vasus 

1.   On the first of these nectars the Vasus live, with Agni (fire) at  their head. Truly, the gods do not eat or drink. They are  satisfied by merely looking at the nectar.

2.   They retire into that red colour and rise up from that colour.

3.   He who thus knows this nectar becomes one of the Vasus, with  Agni (fire) at their head; he is satisfied by merely looking at the  nectar. He retires into that red colour and again rises up from  that colour.

4.   As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, so long  does he, like the Vasus, enjoy rulership and sovereignty.

Chapter VII � Meditation on the Rudras 

1.   On the second of these nectars the Rudras live, with Indra at  their head. Truly, the gods do not eat or drink. They are  satisfied by merely looking at the nectar.

2.   They retire into that white colour and rise up from that colour.

3.   He who thus knows this nectar becomes one of the Rudras,  with Indra at their head; he is satisfied by merely looking at the  nectar. He retires into that white colour and again rises up from  that colour.

4.   As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, twice as  long does it rise in the south and set in the north and just so  long does he, like the Rudras, enjoy rulership and sovereignty.

Chapter VIII � Meditation on the Adityas 

1.   On the third of these nectars the Adityas live, with Varuna at  their head. Truly, the gods do not eat or drink. They are  satisfied by merely looking at the nectar.

2.   They retire into that dark colour and rise up from that colour.

3.   He who thus knows this nectar becomes one of the Adityas,  with Varuna at their head; he is satisfied by merely looking at  the nectar. He returns into that dark colour and again rises up  from that colour.

4.   As long as the sun rises in the south and sets in the north, twice  as long does it rise in the west and set in the east and just so  long does he, like the Adityas, enjoy rulership and sovereignty.

Chapter IX � Meditation on the Maruts 

1.   On the fourth of these nectars the Maruts live, with Soma at  their head. Truly, the gods do not eat or drink. They are  satisfied by merely looking at the nectar.

2.   They retire into that extremely dark colour and rise up from  that colour.

3.   He who thus knows this nectar becomes one of the Maruts,  with Soma at their head; he is satisfied by merely looking at the  nectar. He retires into that extremely dark colour and again  rises up from that colour.

4.   As long as the sun rises in the west and sets in the east, twice as  long does it rise in the north and set in the south and just so  long does he, like the Maruts, enjoy rulership and sovereignty.

Chapter X � Meditation on the Sadhyas 

1.   On the fifth of these nectars the Sadhyas live, with Brahma at  their head. Truly, the gods do not eat or drink. They are  satisfied by merely looking at the nectar.

2.   Thy retire into that form and rise up from that form.

3.   He who knows this nectar becomes one of the Sadhyas, with  Brahma at their head; he is satisfied by merely looking at the  nectar. He retires into that form and again rises up from that  form.

4.   As long as the sun rises in the north and sets in the south, twice  as long does it rise above and set below and just so long does  he, like the Sadhyas, enjoy rulership and sovereignty.

Chapter XI � The Result of the Meditation on the Honey 

1.   Now, after having risen thence upwards, it (i.e. the sun) rises  and sets no more. It remains alone in the centre. And on this  there is the following verse:

2.   “There (i.e. in Brahmaloka) the sun neither rises nor sets at any  time. O ye gods, if this is true, may I never fall from Brahman!”

3.   Verily, for him who thus knows this Brahma�Upanishad, the  sun does not rise or set. For him it is day for ever.

4.   This doctrine Brahma told to Prajapati, Prajapati to Manu,  Manu to his offspring. And to Uddalaka Aruni this doctrine of  Brahman was narrated by his father.

5.   A father may therefore tell that doctrine of Brahman to his  eldest son to a worthy disciple.

6.   It must not be told to anyone else, even if he should offer one  the whole sea�girt earth, full of treasure; for this doctrine is  worth more an that, yea, it is worth more.

Chapter XII � Meditation on the Gayatri 

1.   The gayatri is everything, whatever here exists. Speech is verily  the Gayatri, for speech sings forth (gaya�ti) and protects  (traya�te) everything, whatever here exists.

2.   That Gayatri is also the earth; for everything that exists here  rests on this earth and does not go beyond.

3.   In man, that Gayatri is also the body; for the pranas exist in this  body and do not go beyond.

4.   That body, in man, is again the heart within a man; for the  pranas exist in it and do not go beyond.

5.   That Gayatri has four feet and is sixfold. The same is also  declared by a Rik�verse:

6.   “Such is its greatness (i.e. of Brahman as known through the  symbol of the Gayatri). Greater than it is the Person (Brahman).  One of Its feet covers all beings; the immortal three feet are in  heaven (i.e. in Itself)

7�9.   The Brahman which has been thus described is the same as the  physical akasa outside a person. The akasa which is outside a  person is the same as that which is inside a person. The akasa  which is inside a person is the akasa within the heart. The akasa  which is within the heart is omnipresent and unchanging. He  who knows this obtains full and unchanging prosperity.  

Chapter XIII � Meditation on the Door�Keepers 

1.   Of that heart there are five doors controlled by the devas. That  which is the eastern door is the prana�that is the eye, that is  Aditya (the sun). One should meditate on that as brightness and  the source of food. He who knows this becomes bright and an  eater of food.

2.   That which is the southern gate is the vyana�that is the ear,  that is Chandrama (the moon). One should meditate on that as  prosperity and fame. He who knows this becomes prosperous  and famous.

3.   That which is the western gate is the apana�that is speech, that  is Agni (fire). One should meditate on that as the radiance of  Brahman and the source of food. He who knows this becomes  radiant and an eater of food.

4.   That which is the northern gate is the samana�that is the mind,  that is Parjanya (the rain�god). One should meditate on that as  fame and beauty. He who knows this becomes famous and  beautiful.

5.   That which is the upper gate is the udana�that is Vayu, that is  the akasa. One should meditate on that as strength and  greatness. He who knows this becomes strong and great.

6.   These are the five servants of Brahman, the door�keepers of  the world of heaven. He who thus knows these five servants of  Brahman, the door�keepers of the world of heaven�in his  family a hero is born. He who thus knows the five servants of  Brahman, the door�keepers of the world of heaven, himself  attains the world of heaven.  7�

8.   Now, the light which shines above this heaven, above all the  worlds, above everything, in the highest worlds not excelled by  any other worlds, that is the same light which is within man.  There is this visible of this light: when we thus perceive by  touch the warmth in the body. And of it we have this audible  proof: when we thus hear, by covering the ears, what is like the  rumbling of a carriage, or the bellowing of an ox, or the sound  of a blazing fire. One should worship as Brahman that inner  light which is seen and heard. He who knows becomes  conspicuous and celebrated, yea, he becomes celebrated.

Chapter XIV � The Sandilya Doctrine 

1.   All this is Brahman. From It the universe comes forth, in It the  universe merges and in It the universe breathes. Therefore a  man should meditate on Brahman with a calm mind.  Now, verily, a man consists of will. As he wills in this world,  so does he become when he has departed hence. Let him with  this knowledge in mind form his will.  2�

3.   He who consists of the mind, whose body is subtle, whose form  is light, whose thoughts are true, whose nature is like the akasa,  whose creation in this universe, who cherishes all righteous  desires, who contains all pleasant odours, who is endowed with  all tastes, who embraces all this, who never speaks and who is  without longing�  He is my Self within the heart, smaller than a grain of rice,  smaller than a grain of barley, smaller than a mustard seed,  smaller than a grain of millet; He is my Self within the heart,  greater than the earth, greater than the mid�region, greater  than heaven, greater than all these worlds.

4.   He whose creation is this universe, who cherishes all desires,  who contains all odours, who is endowed with all tastes, who  embraces all this, who never speaks and who is without  longing�He is my Self within the heart, He is that Brahman.  When I shall have departed hence I shall certainly reach Him:  one who has this faith and has no doubt will certainly attain to  that Godhead. Thus said Sandilya, yea, thus he said.

Chapter XV � Meditation on the Universe as a Chest 

1.   The chest of the universe, with the mid�region for its inside  and the earth for its bottom, does not decay. The quarters are its  different corners and heaven is its lid, which is above. This  chest is the storehouse of treasures. Inside it are all things.

2.   The eastern quarter is called Juhu, the southern quarter  Sahamana, the western quarter Rajni and the northern quarter  Subhuta. Vayu the air is their child. He who knows this Vayu  as the child of the quarters never weeps for his sons.  I know the air to be the child of the quarters; may I never weep  for my sons.

3.   I take refuge in the imperishable chest with this one and this  one and this one. I take refuge in the prana with this one and  this one and this one. I take refuge in Bhuh with this one and  this one and this one. I take refuge in Bhuvah with this one and  this one and this one. I take refuge Svah with this one and this  one and this one.

4.   When I said: “I take refuge in the prana,” prana meant  everything that exists here�in that I take refuge.

5.   When I said: “I take refuge in Bhuh,” what I really said was: “I  refuge in the earth, the mid�region and heaven.”

6.   Then I said: “I take refuge in Bhuvah,” what I said was: “I take  in fire, the air and the sun.”

7.   When I said: “I take refuge in Svah,” what I said was: “I take  refuge in the Rig�Veda, Yajur�Veda and Sama�Veda.”  That is what I said, yea, that is what I said.

Chapter XVI � Man as a Sacrifice (I) 

1.   A person, indeed, is a sacrifice. His first twenty�four years  constitute the morning libation. The Gayatri metre has  twenty�four syllables and the morning libation is offered with  Gayatri hymns. The Vasus are connected with that part of the  sacrifice. The pranas are the Vasus; for, verily, they make  everything abide (visayanti) in this body.

2.   If anything ails him during that period, he should recite the  following mantra: “O ye pranas, ye Vasus, unite this morning  libation with the midday libation. May I, who am a sacrifice,  not disappear in the midst of the pranas, who are the Vasus.”  Thus he rises from his illness and becomes free of it.

3.   His next forty�four years constitute the midday libation. The  Tristubh metre has forty�four syllables and the midday  libation is offered with Tristubh hymns. The Rudras are  connected with that part of the sacrifice. The pranas are the  Rudras; for, verily, they make everything weep (rodayanti).

4.   If anything ails him during that second period, he should recite  the following mantra: “O ye pranas, ye Rudras, unite this  midday libation with the third libation. May I, who am a  sacrifice, not disappear in the midst of the pranas, who are the  Rudras.” Thus he rises from his illness and becomes free of it.

5.   His next forty�eight years constitute the third oblation. The  Jagati metre has forty�eight syllables and the third oblation is  offered with Jagati hymns. The Adityas are connected with that  part of the sacrifice. The pranas are the Adityas; for, verily,  they take up (adadate) every�thing.

6.   If anything ails him during that third period, he should recite  the following mantra: “O ye pranas, ye Adityas, extend this my  third libation to the full age. May I, who am a sacrifice, not  disappear in the midst of the pranas, who are the Adityas.”  Thus he rises from his illness and becomes free of it.

7.   Mahidasa, the son of Itara, knew this and said addressing a  disease: “O you disease! Why do you afflict me? I shall not die  of this pain” He lived a hundred and sixteen years. He, too, who  knows this lives on to a hundred and sixteen years.

Chapter XVII � Man as a Sacrifice (II) 

1.   When a man hungers, thirsts and abstains from pleasures�  these are his initiatory rites.

2.   When he eats, drinks and enjoys pleasures, he then participates  in Upasadas.

3.   When a man laughs, eats and enjoys sexual intercourse�these  are Stuta and Sastra.

4.   Austerity, almsgiving, uprightness, non�violence and  truthfulness�these are the gifts (dakshina) for the priests.

5.   Because the life of a man is a sacrifice therefore they say that  his mother will give birth (soshyati) to him, or his mother has  given birth (asoshta) to him. The same words are used in the  Soma�sacrifice and mean: “He will pour out the Soma�  juice” and “He has poured out the Soma�juice.” This is his  birth. His death is the Avabhritha.

6.   Ghora, of the line of Angirasa, communicated this teaching to  Krishna, the son of Devaki�and it quenched Krishna�s thirst  for any other knowledge�and said: “When a man approaches  death he should take refuge in these three thoughts: �Thou art  indestructible (akshata),� �Thou art unchanging (aprachyuta),�  and �Thou art the subtle prana.�  “On this subject there are two Rik�verses:

7.   “They (i.e. the knowers of Brahman) see everywhere the  Supreme Light, which shines in Brahman, which is all�  pervading like the light of day and which belongs to the  primeval Seed.  �Perceiving the higher light in the sun�which is above the  darkness of ignorance�as the higher light in the heart,  perceiving the Supreme Light which is higher than all lights,  we have reached the Highest Light, the Sun, the most luminous  among the gods, yea, we have reached the Highest Light, the  Sun, the most luminous among the gods.”

Chapter XVIII � The Mind and the Akasa as Symbols of  Brahman 

1.   One should meditate on the mind as Brahman�this is said with  reference to the body. One should meditate on the akasa as  Brahman�this is to said with reference to the gods. Thus  both�the meditation with reference to the body and the  meditation with reference to the gods�are being taught.

2.   That Brahman has four feet (quarters): speech is one foot, the  prana (the nose) is one foot, the eye is one foot, the ear is one  foot�this is to said with reference to the body. Now with  reference to the gods: Agni (fire) is one foot, Vayu (air) is one  foot, Aditya (the sun) is one foot and the quarters (disah) are  one foot. This is the twofold meditation with reference to the  body and with reference to the gods.

3.   Speech is, indeed, a fourth foot (quarter) of Brahman of which  the mind is a symbol. It shines and warms with the light of fire.  He who knows this shines and warms with fame, with renown  and with the radiance of Brahman.

4.   Prana (the nose) is, indeed, a fourth foot of Brahman. It shines  and warms with the light of the air. He who knows this shines  and warms with fame, with renown and with the radiance of  Brahman.

5.   The eye, indeed, is a fourth foot of Brahman. It shines and  warms with the light of the sun. He who knows this shines and  warms with fame, with renown and with the radiance of  Brahman.

6.   The ear, indeed, is a fourth foot of Brahman. It shines and  warms with the light of the quarters. With fame, with renown  and with the radiance of Brahman he shines and warms who  knows this, yea, who knows this.

Chapter XIX � Meditation on the Sun as Brahman

1.   The sun is Brahman: this is the teaching. An explanation  thereof follows:  In the beginning this universe was non�existent. It became  existent. It grew. It turned into an egg. The egg lay for the  period of a year. Then it broke open. Of the two halves of the  egg�shell, one half was of silver, the other of gold.

2.   That which was of silver became the earth; that which was of  gold, heaven. What was the thick membrane of the white  became the mountains; the thin membrane of the yolk, the must  and the clouds. The veins became the rivers; the fluid in the  bladder, the ocean.

3.   And what was born of it was yonder Aditya, the sun. when it  was born shouts of “Hurrah!” arose, together with all beings  and all objects of desire. Therefore at its rise and its every  return shouts of “Hurrah!” together with all beings and all  objects of desire arise.

4.   He who, knowing this, meditates on the sun as Brahman�  pleasant sounds will quickly approach him and continue to  delight him, yea, continue to delight him.

Part Four

Chapter I � The Story of Janasruti and Raikva 

1.   There once lived a king named Janasruti, who was a great�  grandson of Janasruta. He bestowed his gifts with respect, gave  away liberally and cooked much food for the hungry. He built  rest�houses every�where with the thought that people  everywhere would eat his food.

2.   One night some flamingos were flying along. One flamingo  said to another: “Hey! Ho! Short�sighted, Short�sighted!  The radiance of Janasruti, the great�grandson of Janasruta, has  spread to the sky. Do not touch it, lest it should burn you.”

3.   The other replied: “Say, who is this person about whom you  have spoken as though he were like Raikva, the man with the  cart?”  “What sort of person is this Raikva, the man with the cart?”

4.   The short�sighted flamingo replied: “As in a game of dice,  when the krita is won, the lower ones also are won, so whatever  merits people acquire all accrue to that Raikva. As Raikva I  describe him, too, who knows what Raikva knows.”

5�6.   Janasruti the great�grandson of Janasruta overheard this  conversation. Immediately after getting out of bed, he said to  his attendant:  “Friend, did you speak of me as though I were Raikva, the man  with the cart?”  “What sort of person is Raikva, the man with the cart?”  “As in a game of dice, when the krita is won, the lower ones  also are won, so whatever merits people acquire all accrue to  that Raikva. As Raikva I describe him, too, who knows what  Raikva knows.”

7.   The attendant searched for him and returned without finding  him. Then the king said to him: “Listen, where a knower of  Brahman is to searched for, look for him there.”

8.   After proper search the attendant came upon a person who,  lying underneath his cart, was scratching an itch. Humbly he  took his seat near him and said: “Revered Sir, are you Raikva,  the man with the cart?”  “Oh yes, I am he,” he answered.  Then the attendant returned, saying to himself: “I have found  him out.”

Chapter II � Dialogue of Raikva and Janasruti (I)  

1�2.   Then Janasruti the great�grandson of Janasruta took with him  six hundred cows, a necklace and a chariot with mules and  went to Raikva and said:  “Raikva, here are six hundred cows, a necklace and a chariot  with mules. Pray, revered Sir, teach me the deity whom you  worship.”

3.   To him the other said: “Ah, may the necklace and the chariot  remain with you, O Sudra, along with the cows.”  Thereupon Janasruti the great�grandson of Janasruta took  with him a thousand cows, a chariot with mules, a necklace and  his own daughter, too and went to Raikva.

4.   Janasruti said to him: “Raikva, here are a thousand cows, a  necklace, a chariot with mules, this wife and this village where  you shall dwell. Revered Sir, teach me.”

5.   Then considering her (the princess) as the door for imparting  knowledge, Raikva said: “O Sudra! You brought these cows  and other presents; this is good. But you will make me speak  now only through this means (i.e. the princess).”  These are the villages named Raikvaparna, in the country of  Mahavrishas, where Raikva lived.  Now Raikva said to the king:

Chapter III � Dialogue of Raikva and Janasruti (II)

1.   “Verily, Vayu (the air) is the swallower (samvarga). For when  fire goes out it is indeed swallowed by the air. When the sun  sets it is swallowed by the air. When the moon sets it is  swallowed by the air.

2.   “When water dries up it is swallowed by the air. For indeed the  air absorbs them all. So much with reference to the gods.

3.   “Now with reference to the body: Verily, the prana is the  swallower. When a man sleeps, speech goes into the prana,  sight goes into the prana, hearing goes into the prana and the  mind goes into the prana. For indeed the prana absorbs them  all.

4.   “These are the two swallowers: the air among the gods, the  prana among the senses.”

5.   Once Saunaka of the line of Kapi and Abhipratarin, the son of  Kakshasena, were being waited upon at their meal, when a  brahmacharin begged food of them. They did not give him  anything.

6.   He said: “One God, Prajapati, swallowed the four great ones.  He is the Guardian of the world. O descendent of Kapi, O  Abhipratarin, mortals do not see Him though he abides in  manifold forms. Verily, this food has not been given to Him to  whom it belongs.”

7.   Sanaka of the line of Kapi, pondering on those words, went to  the brahmacharin and said: “He is the self of the gods, the  creator of all beings, with unbroken teeth, the eater, the truly  wise one. They speak of His magnificence as great, because  without being eaten, He eats even what is not common food. O  brahmacharin, we meditate upon this Brahman.”  Then he said to the attendants: “Give him food.”

8.   They gave food to him. Now these five (i.e. the eater vayu and  fire, the sun, the moon and water, which are its food) and those  five (i.e. the eater prana and the organs of speech, the eye, the  ear and the mind, which are its food) make ten. These together  constitute the krita (the highest throw in a game of dice). On  account of this similarity of ten, these ten are the food in the ten  quarters and further, they are Virat, the eater of food, by which  all this becomes seen. All this he sees and the eater of food he  becomes, who knows this, yea, who knows this.

Chapter IV � The Story of Satyakama 

1.   Once upon a time, Satyakama the son of Jabala addressed his  mother and said: “Revered Mother, I wish to become a  brahmacharin. Of what ancestry am I?”

2.   She said to him: “I do not know, my child, of what ancestry you  are. In my youth I was preoccupied with many household  duties and with attending on guests when I conceived you. I do  not know of what ancestry you are. I am Jabala by name and  you are Satyakama. So you may speak of yourself as  Satyakama Jabala (the son of Jabala).

3.   He came to Gautama the son of Haridrumata and said:  “Revered Sir, I wish to live with you as a brahmacharin. May I  approach you, as a pupil?”

4.   Gautama said to him: “Of what ancestry are you, dear friend?”  Satyakama said: “I do not know, Sir, of what ancestry I am. I  asked my mother about it and she replied: �In my youth I was  preoccupied with many household duties and with attending on  guests when I conceived you. I do not know of what ancestry  you are. I am Jabala by name and you are Satyakama.� I am  therefore, Sir, Satyakama Jabala.”

5.   Gautama said: “None but a true brahmin would thus speak out.  Fetch the fuel, dear friend; I shall initiate you. You have not  departed from truth.”  He initiated Satyakama. Having separated out four hundred  lean and weak cows from his herd, he said: “Dear friend, go  with these.”  Driving them away toward the forest, Satyakama said: “I shall  not return until they become a thousand.” He lived a number of  years in the forest.  When the cows had become a thousand�

Chapter V � Instruction by the Bull 

1.   The bull of the herd, addressing him, said: “Satyakama!”  “Revered Sir!” Satyakama replied.  The bull said: “Dear friend, we have become a thousand, take  us to teacher�s house.

2.   “I will declare to you one foot of Brahman.”  “Declare it, Revered Sir.”  The bull said to him: “The east is one quarter, the west is one  quarter, the south is one quarter, the north is one quarter. This,  dear friend, is foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters and  this foot is called Prakasavat (shining).

3.   “He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman  consisting four quarters as shining, becomes shining on this  earth. He conquers shining worlds�he who knows this and  meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as  shining.”

Chapter VI � Instruction by Fire 

1.   The bull further said: “Agni (fire) will declare to you another  foot of Brahman.”  Satyakama then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows in the  direction of the teacher�s house. And when they came together  toward evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid fuel on  the fire and sat down behind the fire, facing the east.

2.   Agni (fire), addressing him, said: “Satyakama!”  “Revered Sir!” Satyakama replied.

3.   “Dear friend, I will declare to you one foot of Brahman.”  “Declare it, revered Sir.”  Agni said to him: “The earth is one quarter, the sky is one  quarter, heaven is one quarter, the ocean is one quarter. This,  dear friend, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters  and this foot is called Anantavat (endless).

4.   “He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman  consisting of four quarters as endless, becomes endless on this  earth. He conquers endless worlds�he who knows this and  meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as  endless.”

Chapter VII � Instruction by the Swan

1.   Agni further said: “A hamsa (swan) will declare to you another  foot.”  Satyakama then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows in the  direction of the teacher�s house. And when they came together  toward evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid fuel on  the fire and sat down behind the fire, facing the east.

2.   Then a swan flew to him and said: “Satyakama!”  “Revered Sir!” Satyakama replied.

3.   Dear friend, I will declare to you one foot of Brahman.”  “Declare it, revered Sir.”  The swan said to him: “Fire is one quarter, the sun is one  quarter, the moon is one quarter, lightning is one quarter. This,  dear friend, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters  and this foot is called Jyotishmat (luminous).

4.   He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman  consisting of four quarters as luminous, becomes luminous on  this earth. He conquers luminous worlds�he who knows this  and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four  quarters as luminous.

Chapter VIII � Instruction by the Diver�Bird 

1.   The swan further said: “A madgu (diver�bird) will declare to  you another foot.”  Satyakama then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows in the  direction of the teacher�s house. And when they came together  toward evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid fuel on  the fire and sat down behind the fire, facing the east.

2.   Then a diver�bird flew to him and said: “Satyakama!”  “Revered Sir!” Satyakama replied.

3.   “Dear friend, I will declare to you one foot of Brahman.”  “Declare it, revered Sir.”  The diver�bird said to him: “The prana is one quarter, the eye  is one quarter, the ear is one quarter, the mind is one quarter.  This, dear friend, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of four  quarters and this foot is called Ayatanavat (having support).

4.   “He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman  consisting of four quarters as Ayatanavat, possesses a support  (i.e. home) on this earth. He conquers the worlds which offer a  home�he who knows this and meditates on the foot of  Brahman consisting of four quarters as Ayatanavat.”

Chapter IX � Instruction by the Teacher 

1.   Satyakama reached the teacher�s house. The teacher said to  him: “Satyakama!”  “Revered Sir!” Satyakama replied.

2.   The teacher said: “Dear friend, you shine like one who knows  Brahman. Who has taught you?”  “Others than men,” he replied. “But I wish, revered Sir, that  you alone should teach me.”

3.   “For I have heard from persons like your good self that only  knowledge which is learnt from a teacher (acharya) leads to the  highest good.”  Then he (Gautama) taught him the same knowledge. Nothing  whatsoever was left out, yea, nothing whatsoever was left out.

Chapter X � The Story of Upakosala 

1.   Upakosala the son of Kamala dwelt as a brahmachirin  (religious student) with Satyakama the son of Jabala. He tended  his teacher�s fires for twelve years. Satyakama allowed his  other pupils to return to their homes after they had finished  their Vedic studies but did not allow Upakosala to depart.

2.   Then his wife said to him: “This brahmachirin, practising  austerities, has intelligently tended your fires. Give him  instruction lest the fires should blame you.” The teacher,  however, went away on a journey without teaching him.

3.   The brahmachirin out of mental grief began to fast. Then the  teacher�s wife said to him: “Brahmachirin, why do you not  eat?”  He said: “There are in a man like me many desires directed to  various objects. I am full of sorrows. I will not eat.”

4.   Thereupon the fires said among themselves: “This  brahmachirin, practising austerities, has intelligently tended us.  Come, let us teach him.”  They said to him: “The prana is Brahman, ka (joy) is Brahman,  kha (the akaha) is Brahman.”

5.   He said: “I understand that the prana is Brahman, but I do not  understand �joy� (ka) and �the akasa� (kha).”  They said: “What is joy (ka) is the akasa (kha), what is the  akasa (kha) is joy (ka).”  They taught him the prana (i.e. Brahman) and the akasa related  to it.

Chapter XI � Instruction by the Household Fire 

1.   Next the Garhapatya Fire taught him: “The earth, fire, food and  the sun are my forms. The person that is seen in the sun�I am  he, I am he indeed.

2.   “He who, knowing this, meditates on the fire frees himself from  sinful actions, obtains the World of the Garhapatya Fire,  reaches his full age and lives brightly. His descendants do not  perish. We support him in this world and in the other who,  knowing this, meditates on the fire.”

Chapter XII � Instruction by the Southern Fire 

1.   Then the Anvaharya (Southern) Fie taught him: “Water, the  quarters, the stars and the moon are my forms. The person that  is seen in the moon�I am he, I am he indeed.

2.   “He who, knowing this, meditates on the fire frees himself from  sinful actions, obtains the World of the Anvaharya Fire, reaches  his full age and lives brightly. His descendants do not perish.  We support him in this world and in the other who, knowing  this, meditates on the fire.”

Chapter XIII � Instruction by the Ahavaniya Fire 

1.   Then the Ahavaniya Fire taught him: “The prana, the akaha,  heaven and lightning are my forms. The person that is seen in  lightning�I am he, I am he indeed.

2.   “He who, knowing this, meditates on the fire frees himself from  sinful actions, obtains the World of the Anvaharya Fire, reaches  his full age and lives brightly. His descendants do not perish.  We support him in this world and in the other who, knowing  this, meditates on the fire.”

Chapter XIV � Dialogue between the Teacher and the  Pupil 

1.   Then they (i.e. all the fires) said: “Upakosala, dear friend, thus  we taught you the knowledge of ourselves and the knowledge  of the Self. But the teacher will teach you the way.”  The teacher returned and said to him: “Upakosala!”

2�3.   He replied: “Revered Sir!”  “Dear friend, your face shines like that of one who knows  Brahman. Who has taught you?”  “Who should teach me, Sir?”  Here he conceals the fact, as it were.  And he said pointing to the fires: “For this reason they are of  this form now, though they were of a different form before.”  “Dear friend, what did they teach you?”  “This,” Upakosala replied and repeated some of what the fires  had told him.  The teacher said: “They told you, dear friend, only about the  worlds, but I shall tell you about Brahman. As water does not  cling to the lotus leaf, so no evil clings to one who knows this.”  Upakosala said to him: “Revered Sir, please tell me.”  

Chapter XV � Instruction by the Teacher 

1.   He said: “The person that is seen in the eye�that is the Self.  This is the immortal, the fearless; this is Brahman. That is why,  if one drops melted butter or water in the eye, it flows away on  both sides.

2.   “The seers call him Samyadvama, for all blessings (vama) go  towards him (samyanti). All blessings go towards him who  knows this.

3.   “He is also Vamani, for he carries to living beings (nayati) all  blessings (vama). He who knows this carries all blessings.

4.   “He is also called Bhamani, for he shines (bhati) in all the  worlds. He who knows this shines in all the worlds.

5.   “Now, whether or not they perform the funeral rites for such a  person, he goes to light, from light to day, from day to the  bright half of the moon, from the bright half of the moon to the  six months during which the sun goes to the north, from those  months to the year, from the year to the sun, from the sun to the  moon, from the moon to lightning. There a person who is not a  human being meets him and leads him to Brahman. This is the  Path of the Gods (Devayana), the path leading to Brahman.  Those who travel by it do not return to the whirl of humanity,  yea, they do not return.”

Chapter XVI � The Silence of the Brahma Priest 

1.   Verily, he who moves along (i.e. the air) is the sacrifice; for he,  moving along, purifies everything. And because, moving along,  he purifies everything, he is the sacrifice. Of that sacrifice, the  mind and speech are the two ways.

2�3.   The Brahma priest purifies one of the two (i.e. the mind) by his  mind. The other (i.e. speech) is purified through words by the  hotri priest, the adhvaryu priest and the udgatri priest.  If the Brahma priest, after the Prataranuvaka hymn has begun  and before the recitation of the Paridhaniya hymn, breaks his  silence and speaks, he purifies only one of the ways (i.e.  speech), but the other (i.e. the mind) is injured. As a man  walking on one leg, or a carriage going on one wheel, is  injured, likewise the sacrifice is injured. Following the injury to  the sacrifice, the sacrificer too is injured. By performing the  defective sacrifice he becomes more sinful.

4.   But if the Brahma priest, after the Prataranuvaka hymn has  begun and before the recitation of the Paridhaniya, does not  break his silence and speak, he purifies both the ways and  neither of them is injured.  As a man walking on two legs or a carriage going on two  wheels goes on without obstacle, likewise the sacrifice goes on  without obstacle. Following the success of the sacrifice, the  sacrificer too fares well. Having performed the sacrifice he  becomes better.

Chapter XVII � Penances for Mistakes in the Sacrifice 

1.   Prajapati brooded over the worlds; from them, thus brooded  over, he squeezed the essences: agni (fire) from the earth, vayu  (air) from the mid�region and aditya (the sun) from heaven.

2.   He brooded over these three deities; from them, thus brooded  over, he squeezed the essences. The Rik�verses from fire, the  Yajus�verses from the air and the Saman�verses from the  sun.

3.   He brooded over the threefold knowledge (i.e. the three Vedas);  from them, thus brooded over, he squeezed the essences: Bhuh  from the Rik�verses, Bhuvah from the Yajus�verses and  Svah from the Saman�verses.

4.   If the sacrifice is injured with regard to the Rik�verses, one  should then offer a libation in the Garhapatya Fire saying:  “Bhuh Svaha!” Thus is healed the injury with regard to the  Rik�verses by means of the essence and the power of the  Rik�verses themselves.

5.   If the sacrifice is injured with regard to the Yajus�verses, one  should then offer a libation in the Southern (Dakshina) Fire,  saying: “Bhuvah Svaha!” Thus is healed the injury with regard  to the Yajus�verses by means of the essence and the power of  the Yajus�verses themselves.

6.   If the sacrifice is injured with regard to the Saman�verses, one  should then offer a libation in the Ahavaniya Fire, saying:  “Svah Svaha!” Thus is healed the injury with regard to the  Saman�verses by means of the essence and the power of the  Saman�verses themselves.

7�8.   As one binds gold by means of borax and silver by means of  gold and tin by means of silver and lead by means of tin and  iron by means of lead and wood by means of iron or leather,  Likewise one heals any injury done to the sacrifice with the  power of these worlds, these gods and these three Vedas. That  sacrifice is well healed in which there is a Brahma priest who  knows this.  

9�10.   That sacrifice is inclined to the north in which there is a  Brahma priest who knows this. And with regard to such a  Brahma priest, there is the following gatha: “Wherever it is  injured, thither he (the Brahma priest) goes.”  The silent Brahma alone, as one or the priests, protects the  sacrificer, as a mare protects a warrior. Because the Brahma  priest who knows this protects the sacrifice, the sacrificer and  all the priests, one should therefore make a person who knows  this the Brahma priest and not one who knows it not, yea, not  one who knows it not.

Chapter I � The Supremacy of the Prana 

1.   Om. He who knows what is the oldest and greatest becomes  himself the oldest and greatest. The prana, indeed, is the oldest  and greatest.

2.   He who knows what is the most excellent (vasishtha) becomes  the most excellent among his kinsmen. The organ of speech,  indeed, is the most excellent.

3.   He who knows what has the attributes of firmness (pratishtha)  becomes firm in this world and the next. The eye, indeed, is  endowed with firmness.

4.   He who knows prosperity (sampad), his wishes are fulfilled�  both divine and human wishes. The ear, indeed, is prosperity.

5.   He who knows the abode (ayatana) becomes the abode of his  kinsmen. The mind, indeed, is the abode.

6.   The pranas (sense�organs) disputed among themselves about  who was the best among them, each saying: “I am the best,” “I  am the best.”

7.   They went to Prajapati, their progenitor and said: “O revered  Sir, who is the best among us?”  He said to them: “He by whose departure the body looks worse  than the worst is the best among you.”

8.   The organ of speech departed. After being away for a whole  year, it came back and said: “How have you been able to live  without me?” The other organs replied: “We lived just as dumb  people live, without speaking, but breathing with the prana  (nose), seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear and thinking  with the mind.” Then the organ of speech entered the body.

9.   The eye departed. After being away for a whole year, it came  back and said: “How have you been able to live without me?”  The other organs replied: “We lived just as blind people live,  without seeing, but breathing with the prana, speaking with the  tongue, hearing with the ear and thinking with the mind.” Then  the eye entered the body.

10.   The ear went out. After being away for a whole year, it came  back and said: “How have you been able to live without me?”  The other organs replied: “We lived just as deaf people live,  without hearing, but breathing with the prana. Speaking with  the tongue, seeing with the eye and thinking with the mind.”  Then the ear entered the body.

11.   The mind went out. After being away for a whole year, it came  back and said: “How have you been able to live without me?”  The other organs replied: “We lived just like children whose  minds are not yet formed, without thinking with the mind, but  breathing with the prana, speaking with the tongue, seeing with  the eye and hearing with the ear.” Then the mind entered the  body.

12.   Then as the vital breath was about to depart, he uprooted the  organs from their places just as a noble horse tears up the pegs  to which its feet are tied. They came to him and said: “Revered  Sir, be thou our lord; thou art the best among us. Do not depart  from us.”

13.   Then the organ of speech said to him: “That attribute of being  most excellent which I possess is thine.”  Then the eye said: “That attribute of firmness which I possess is  thine.”

14.   Then the ear said: “That attribute of prosperity which I possess  is thine.”  Then the mind said: “That attribute of being the abode which I  possess is thine.”

15.   And people do not call them (i.e. the sense�organs) the organs  of speech, the eyes, the ears, or the mind, but the pranas. The  prana alone is all these.

Chapter II � The Mantha Rite 

1.   The prana said: “What will be my food?”  They answered: “Whatever food there is�including that of  dogs and birds.”  The Upanishad says: All that is eaten is the food of the ana.  Ana is his (i.e. the prana�s) direct name. For one who knows  this, there exists nothing which is not food.

2.   He said: “What will be my dress?”  They answered: “Water.” Therefore when people eat they cover  him (the prana), both before and after eating, with water. Thus  the prana obtains clothing and is no longer naked.

3.   Satyakama the son of Jabala explained this doctrine of the  prana to Gosruti, the son of Vyaghrapada and said: “If one  should tell this to a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves  spring forth.”

4.   Now, if a man wishes to attain greatness, he should perform the  initiatory rite on the day of the new moon and then on the night  of the full moon he should stir a paste of all the herbs with  curds and honey and offer it as a libation in the fire where the  melted butter is offered, saying: “Svaha to the oldest (jyashtha)  and greatest (sreshtha)!” Then let him throw the remainder  adhering to the ladle into the paste.

5.   In the same manner he should offer a libation in the fire where  the melted butter is offered, saying: “Svaha to the most  excellent (vasishtha)!” Then let him throw the remainder  adhering to the ladle into the paste.  In the same manner he should offer a libation into the fire  where the melted butter is offered, saying: “Svaha to firmness  (pratishthi)!” and then throw the remainder adhering to the  ladle into the paste.  In the same manner he should offer a libation in the fire where  the melted butter is offered, saying: “Svaha to prosperity  (sampad)!” and then throw the remainder adhering to the ladle  into the paste.  In the same manner he should offer a libation into the fire  where the melted butter is offered, saying: “Svaha to the abode  (ayatana)!” and then throw the remainder adhering to the ladle  into the paste.

6.   Then, moving away a little from the fire and holding the paste  (mantha) in his hands, he recites: “Thou (prana) art ama by  name, for all this rests in thee. He (i.e. the paste, which is the  same as the prana) is the oldest, the greatest, the king and the  sovereign. May he make me the oldest, the greatest, the king  and the sovereign. May I be all this!”

7.   Then he recites the following Rik�mantra, swallowing the  paste (mantha) each time he utters a foot of the mantra: “We  desire, of the great progenitor (i.e. the sun)”�here he swallows  a little�”of the luminous, the food”�here he swallows a  little� “the best and all�supporting”�here he swallows a  little�”we meditate quickly on the nature of the sun”�here he  swallows the whole. Having cleansed the vessel made of metal  or wood, he lies down behind the fire, on a skin or on the bare  ground, controlling his speech and self�possessed. If he sees a  woman in a dream, then let him know that his work (rite) has  been a success.

8.   On this there is the following verse: “If during rites performed  with a view to fulfilling certain desires, he sees a woman in his  dream, let him know of his success from this vision in a dream,  yea, from this vision in a dream.”

Chapter III � The Story of Svetaketu and Pravahana 

1.   Svetaketu the grandson of Aruna came to the assembly of the  Panchalas. Pravahana the son of Jibala said to him: “Boy, has  your father instructed you?”  “Yes, revered Sir,” he replied.

2.   The king said: “Do you know to what place men go after  departing from here?”  “No, revered Sir.”  “Do you know how they return again?”  “No, revered Sir.”  “Do you know where the paths leading to the gods and leading  to the Manes separate?”  “No, revered Sir.”

3.   “Do you know why yonder world is not filled up?”  “No, revered Sir.”  “Do you know how water, in the fifth oblation, comes to be  called man?”  “No, revered Sir.”

4.   “Then why did you say that you had been instructed? How  could he who did not know these things say that he had been  instructed?”  Then Svetaketu went back to his father with a sorrowful mind  and said to him: “Revered Sir, you told me that you had  instructed me, though you had not instructed me.

5.   “That fellow of a Kshatriya asked me five questions and I could  not answer one of them.”  The father said: “As you have stated these questions to me, let  me assure you that I do not know even one of them. If I had  known them, why should I not have told them to you?”

6.   Then Gautama went to the king�s place. When he arrived the  king showed him proper respect. Next morning, when the king  came to the assembly, Gautama, too, came there.  The king said to him: “Gautama, Sir, ask of me a boon relating  to human wealth.”  He replied: “May human wealth remain with you. Tell me that  speech which you addressed to my boy.”  The king became sad.

7.   The king commanded him: “Stay with me for a long time.”  Then he said to him: “As to what you have told me, O  Gautama, this knowledge did not reach any brahmin before  you. Thus it was to the kshatriya alone, among all the people,  that the teaching of this knowledge belonged.”  Then he began to teach him:

Chapter IV � The Five Fires (I) 

1.   “Yonder world is the sacrificial fire, O Gautama, the sun the  fuel, the rays the smoke, daytime the flame, the moon the  embers and the stars the sparks.

2.   “In this fire the gods offer faith as libation. Out of that offering  King Moon is born.”

Chapter V � The Five Fires (II) 

1.   “Parjanya (the god of rain), O Gautama, is the fire, the air the  fuel, the cloud the smoke, lightning the flame, the thunderbolt  the embers and thunderings the sparks.

2.   “In this fire the gods offer King Moon as libation. Out of that  offering rain is born.”

Chapter VI� The Five Fires (III) 

1.   “The earth, O Gautama, is the fire, the year the fuel, the akasa  the smoke, the night the flame, the quarters the embers and the  intermediate quarters the sparks.

2.   “In this fire the gods offer rain as libation. Out of that offering  food is born.”

Chapter VII� The Five Fires (IV) 

1.   “Man, O Gautama, is the fire, speech is the fuel, the prana the smoke,  the tongue the flame, the eye the embers and the ear the sparks.

2.   “In this fire the gods offer food as libation. Out of that offering  semen produced.”

Chapter VIII � The Five Fires (V) 

1.   “Woman, O Gautama, is the fire, her sexual organ is the fuel,  what invites is the smoke, the vulva is the flame, what is done  inside is the embers, the pleasures are the sparks.

2.   “In this fire the gods offer semen as libation. Out of that  offering the foetus is formed.”

Chapter IX � Birth and Death 

1.   “Thus in the fifth libation water comes to be called man. The  foetus enclosed in the membrane, having lain inside for ten or  nine months, or more or less, is born.

2.   “Having been born, he lives whatever the length of his life may  be. When he is dead, they carry him to the fire of the funeral  pyre whence he came, whence he arose.”

Chapter X � The Various Paths followed after Death  

1�2.   “Those who know this and those who, dwelling in the forest,  practise faith and austerities go to light, from light to day, from  day to the bright half of the moon, from the bright half of the  moon to the six months during which the sun goes to the north,  from those months to the year, from the year to the sun, from  the sun to the moon, from the moon to lightning. There a  person who is not a human being meets him and leads him to  Brahman. This is the Path of the Gods (Devayana).

3.   “But those who, living in the village, perform sacrifices,  undertake works of public utility and give alms go to smoke,  from smoke to night, from night to the dark half of the moon,  from the dark half of the moon to the six months during which  the sun goes to the south. But they do not reach the year.

4.   “From those months they go to the World of the Manes, from  the world of the Manes to the akasa, from the akasa to the  moon. This is King Soma. They are the food of the gods. Them  the gods eat.  5�

6.   “Having dwelt there in the lunar world till their good works are  consumed, they return again the same way they came. They  first reach the akasa and from the akasa the air. Having become  air, they become smoke; having become smoke, they become  mist;  “Having become mist, they become cloud; having become  cloud, they fall as rain�water. Then they are born as rice and  barley, herbs and trees, sesamum and beans. Thence the exit is  most difficult; for whoever capable of begetting children eats  that food and injects semen, they become like unto him.

7.   “Those whose conduct here on earth has been good will quickly  attain some good birth�birth as a brahmin, birth as a kshatriya,  or birth as a vaisya. But those whose conduct here has been evil  will quickly attain some evil birth�birth as a dog, birth as a  pig, or birth as a chandala.

8.   “Those who neither practise meditation nor perform rituals do  not follow either of these ways. They become those  insignificant creatures which are continually revolving and  about which it may be said: �Live and die.� This is the third  place.  “Therefore that world never becomes full. Let a man despise  this course. To this end there is the following verse:

9.   � “A man who steals the gold of a brahmin, he (i.e. a brahmin)  who drinks liquor, he who dishonours his teacher�s bed and he  who kills a brahmin�these four fall, as also a fifth who  associates with them.� ”

10.   “But he who knows these Five Fires is not stained by sin even  though associating with them. He becomes pure and clean and  obtains the world of the blessed�he who knows this, yea, he  who knows this.”

Chapter XI � Concerning the Universal Self 

1.   Prachinasala the son of Upamanyu, Satyayajna the son of  Pulusha, Indradyumna the grandson of Bhallavi, Jana the son of  Sarkaraksha and Budila the son of Asvatarasva�great  householders and great scriptural scholars�came together and  discussed the question:  “What is our self and what is Brahman?”

2.   They solved the problem with the words: “Revered Sirs,  Uddalaka the son of Aruna knows, at present, about the  Vaisvanara Self. Let us go to him.”  They went to him.

3.   He (Uddalaka) concluded: “These great householders and great  scriptural scholars will question me. Perhaps I shall not be able  to tell them everything. Therefore I shall direct them to another  teacher.”

4.   He said to them: “Revered Sirs, King Asvapati the son of  Kekaya knows, at present, about the Vaisvanara Self. Let us all  go to him.”  They went to him.

5�7.   When they arrived, the king ordered that proper respect should  be paid to each of them. The next morning, after leaving bed,  he said to them:  “In my kingdom there is no thief, no miser, no wine�bibber,  no man without a sacrificial fire, no ignorant person, no  adulterer, much less adulteress.  “Revered Sirs, I am going to perform a sacrifice. I shall give to  you as much wealth as I give to each priest. Please, revered  Sirs, stay here.”  They said: “If a person comes to another with a purpose, he  should tell the other only about that. At present, you know  about the Vaisvanara Self. Please tell us about Him.”  He said to them: “I shall give you a reply tomorrow morning.”  Next morning they approached him with fuel in their hands.  Without having performed any initiatory rites, the king said to  them:  

Chapter XII � The Head of the Vaisvanara Self  

1�2.   “O son of Upamanyu, whom do you meditate on as the Self?”  “Heaven only, venerable King,” he replied.  “The Self you meditate on,” said the king “is the Vaisvanara  Self called the Good Light (Sutejas). Therefore one sees in your  family the Suta libation as also the Prasuta libation and the  Asuta libation and you eat food and see what is pleasing.  Whoever thus meditates on the Vaisvanara Self eats food, sees  what is pleasing and has in his family the glory of Brahman.  That, however, is only the head of the Self. Surely your head  would have fallen off if you had not come to me.”  

Chapter XIII � The Eye of the Vaisvanara Self  

1�2.   Then he said to Satyayajna the son of Pulusha: “O  Prachinayogya, whom do you meditate on as the Self?”  “The sun only, venerable King,” he replied.  “The Self you meditate on,” said the king, “is the Vaisvanara  Self called the Universal Form (Visvarupa). Therefore one sees  in your family much and manifold wealth�there are ready the  chariot and mules, female servants and gold necklaces�and  you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever thus meditates  on the Vaisvanara Self eats food, sees what is pleasing and has  in his family the glory of Brahman. That, however, is only the  eye of the Self. Surely you would have become blind if you had  not come to me.”  

Chapter XIV � The Prana of the Vaisvanara Self  

1�2.   Then he said to Indradyumna the grandson of Bhallavi: “O  Vaiyaghrapadya, whom do you meditate on as the Self?”  “The air only, venerable King,” he replied.  “The Self you meditate on,” said the king, “is the Vaisvanara  Self of varied courses (Prithagvartma). Therefore gifts come to  you in various ways, rows of chariots follow you in various  ways and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever thus  meditates on the Vaisvanara Self eats food, sees what is  pleasing and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That,  however, is only the prana of the Self. Surely your prana would  have left you if you had not come to me.”  

Chapter XV � The Trunk of the Vaisvanara Self  

1�2.   Then he said to Jana the son of Sarkaraksha: “Whom do you  meditate on as the Self?”  “The akasa only, venerable King,” he replied.  “The Self you meditate on,” said the king, “is the Vaisvanara  Self called Bahula (full). Therefore you are full of offspring  and wealth and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever  thus meditates on the Vaisvanara Self eats food, sees what is  pleasing and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That,  however, is only the trunk of the Self. Surely your trunk would  have been destroyed if you had not come to me.”  

Chapter XVI � The Bladder of the Vaisvanara Self  

1�2.   Then he said to Budila the son of Asvatarasva: “O  Vaiyaghrapadya, whom do you meditate on as the Self?”  “Water only, venerable King,” he replied.  “The Self you meditate on,” said the king, “is the Vaisvanara  Self called Rayi (wealth). Therefore you are wealthy and  flourishing and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever  thus meditates on the Vaisvanara Self eats food, sees what is  pleasing and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That,  however, is only the bladder of the Self. Surely your bladder  would have burst if you had not come to me.”  

Chapter XVII � The Feet of the Vaisvanara Self  

1�2.   Then he said to Uddalaka the son of Aruna: “O Gautama,  whom do you meditate on as the Self?”  “The earth only, venerable King,” he replied.  “The Self you meditate on,” said the king, “is the Vaisvanara  Self called Pratishtha (the support). Therefore you are  supported by offspring and cattle and you eat food and see what  is pleasing. Whoever thus meditates on the Vaisvanara Self eats  food, sees what is pleasing and has in his family the glory of  Brahman. That, however, is only the feet of the Self. Surely  your feet would have withered away if you had not come to  me.”  

Chapter XVIII � The Vaisvanara Self as the Whole

1.   Then he (the king) said to them all: “You being endowed with  limited knowledge eat your food, knowing that Vaisvanara Self  as if He were many. But he who worships the Vaisvanara Self  as the measure of the span from earth to heaven and as identical  with the self, eats food in all worlds, in all beings and in all  selves.

2.   “Of this Vaisvanara Self the head is Sutejas (the Good Light),  the eye Visvarupa (the Universal Form), the prana  Prithagvartma (of various courses), the trunk Bahula (full), the  bladder Rayi (wealth), the feet Prithivi (the earth), the chest the  Vedi (altar), the hair the kusa grass on the altar, the heart the  Garhapatya Fire, the mind the Anvaharya Fire and the mouth  the Ahavaniya Fire.”

Chapter XIX � Performance of the Agnihotra in Oneself  (The Prana)

1.   Therefore the food that comes first should be offered as an  oblation. The first oblation that he (i.e. the eater) offers, he  should offer, saying: “Svaha to the prana!” Then the prana is  satisfied.

2.   The prana being satisfied, the eye is satisfied. The eye being  satisfied, the sun is satisfied. The sun being satisfied, heaven is  satisfied. Heaven being satisfied, whatever is under heaven and  under the sun is satisfied. They being satisfied, he (i.e. the eater  or sacrificer) is satisfied with offspring, cattle, food, brightness  of the body and the light of Brahman.

Chapter XX � The Vyana

1.   The second oblation that he offers, he should offer, saying:  “Svaha to the vyana!” Then the vyana is satisfied.

2.   The vyana being satisfied, the ear is satisfied. The ear being  satisfied, the moon is satisfied. The moon being satisfied, the  quarters are satisfied. The quarters being satisfied, whatever is  under the quarters and under the moon is satisfied. They being  satisfied, the eater is satisfied with offspring, cattle, food,  brightness of the body and the light of Brahman.

Chapter XX � The Apana

1.   The third oblation that he offers, he should offer, saying:  “Svaha to the apana!” Then the apana is satisfied.

2.   The apana being satisfied, speech (i.e. the tongue) is satisfied.  Speech being satisfied, fire is satisfied. Fire being satisfied, the  earth is satisfied. The earth being satisfied, what is under the  earth and under fire is satisfied. They being satisfied, the eater  is satisfied with offspring, cattle, food, brightness of the body  and the light of Brahman.

Chapter XXII � The Samana

1.   The fourth oblation that he offers, he should offer, saying:  “Svaha to the samana!” Then the samana is satisfied.

2.   The samana being satisfied, the mind is satisfied. The mind  being satisfied, the rain�god is satisfied. The rain�god being  satisfied, the lightning is satisfied. The lightning being  satisfied, what is under the lightning and under the rain�god is  satisfied. They being satisfied, the eater is satisfied with  offspring, cattle, food, brightness of the body and the light of  Brahman.

Chapter XXIII � The Udana

1.   The fifth oblation that he offers, he should offer, saying:  “Svaha to the udana!” Then the udana is satisfied.

2.   The udana being satisfied, the skin is satisfied. The skin being  satisfied, the air is satisfied. The air being satisfied, the akasa is  satisfied. The akasa being satisfied, what is under the air and  under the akasa is satisfied. They being satisfied, the eater is  satisfied with offspring, cattle, food, brightness of the body and  the light of Brahman.

Chapter XXIV � The Glory of the Agnihotra Sacrifice

1.   If, without knowing this knowledge of the Vaisvanara Self, one  offers an Agnihotra oblation, it is like an oblation offered in  dead ashes after removing the live coals.

2.   But if; knowing this, one offers an Agnihotra oblation, it is like  an oblation offered in all the worlds, in all beings and in all  atmans.

3.   Even as the soft fibres of the ishika reed, when thrown into fire,  are burnt, so also are burnt all the sins of one who, knowing  this, offers an Agnihotra oblation.

4.   Therefore even if a man who knows this gives what is left of  his food to a chandala, he verily offers it to his Vaisvanara Self.  On this there is the following verse:

5.   “As here on earth hungry children gather around their mother,  so do all beings gather around the Agnihotra sacrifice, yea  around the Agnihotra sacrifice.”

Part Six  

Chapter I � The Non�Duality of the Self 

1.   Om. There once lived Svetaketu the grandson of Aruna. To him  his father said: “Svetaketu, lead the life of a brahmacharin; for  there is none belonging to our family, my dear, who, not having  studied the Vedas, is a brahmin only by birth.”

2�3.   Svetaketu went to his teacher�s house when he was twelve  years old and studied the Vedas till he was twenty�four. Then  he returned to his father, serious, considering himself well read  and arrogant.  His father said to him: “Svetaketu, since you are now so  serious, think yourself well read and are so arrogant, have you,  my dear, ever asked for that instruction by which one hears  what cannot be heard, by which one perceives what cannot be  perceived, by which one knows what cannot be known?”  Svetaketu asked: “What is that instruction, venerable Sir?”  

4�6.   “Just as, my dear, by one clod of clay all that is made of clay is  known, the modification being only a name, arising from  speech, while the truth is that all is clay;  “Just as, my dear, by one nugget of gold all that is made of gold  is known, the modification being only a name, arising from  speech, while the truth is that all is gold;  “And just as, my dear, by one pair of nail�scissors all that is  made of iron is known, the modification being only a name,  arising from speech, while the truth is that all is iron�even so,  my dear, is that instruction.”

7.   “Surely those venerable men did not know that. For if they had  known it, why should they not have told it to me? Therefore do  you, venerable Sir, tell me about it.”  “So be it, my dear,” said the father.

Chapter II � Brahman: the Cause of the Universe

1.   “In the beginning, my dear, this universe was Being (Sat) alone,  one only without a second. Some say that in the beginning this  was non�being (asat) alone, one only without a second; and  from that non�being, being was born.”

2.   Aruni said: “But how, indeed, could it be thus, my dear? How  could Being be born from non�being? No, my dear, it was  Being alone that existed in the beginning, one only without a  second.

3.   “It (Being, or Brahman) thought: �May I be many; may I grow  forth.� It created fire. That fire thought: �May I be many; may I  grow forth.� It created water. That is why, whenever a person is  hot and perspires, water is produced from fire (heat) alone.

4.   “That water thought: �May I be many; may I grow forth.� It  created food (i.e. earth). That is why, whenever it rains  anywhere, abundant food is produced. From water alone is  edible food produced.

Chapter III � The Threefold Development 

1.   “Of all these living beings, there are only three origins: those  born from an egg, those born from a living being and those  born from a sprout.

2.   “That Deity thought: �Let Me now enter into those three deities  by means of this living self and let Me then develop names and  forms.�

3.   “That Deity, having thought: �Let Me make each of these three  tripartite,� entered into these three deities by means of the  living self and developed names and forms.

4.   “It made each of these tripartite; and how these three deities  became, each of them, tripartite, that learn from me now, my  dear.

Chapter IV � The Threefold Development further  explained 

1.   “The red colour of gross fire is the colour of the original fire;  the white colour of gross fire is the colour of the original water;  the black colour of gross fire is the colour of the original earth.  Thus vanishes from fire what is commonly called fire, the  modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the  three colours (forms) alone are true.

2.   “The red colour of the sun is the colour of fire, the white the  colour of water, the black the colour of earth. Thus vanishes  from the sun what is commonly called the sun, the modification  being only a name, arising from speech, while the three colours  alone are true.

3.   “The red colour of the moon is the colour of fire, the white the  colour of water, the black the colour of earth. Thus vanishes  from the moon what is commonly called the moon, the  modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the  three colours alone are true.

4.   “The red colour of lightning is the colour of fire, the white the  colour of water, the black the colour of earth. Thus vanishes  from lightning what is commonly called lighting, the  modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the  three colours alone are true.

5.   “It was just through this knowledge that the great householders  and great Vedic scholars of olden times declared: �No one can  now mention to us anything which we have not heard, thought  of, or known.� They knew all from these three forms.

6�7.   “Whatever, appeared red they knew to be the colour of fire;  whatever appeared white they knew to be the colour of water;  whatever appeared black they knew to be the colour of earth.  “Whatever appeared to be unknown they knew to be the  combination of these three deities (i.e. colours). Now learn  from me, my dear, how these three deities, when they reach  man, become each of them tripartite.  

Chapter V � The Threefold Nature of Food 

1.   “Food when eaten becomes threefold. What is coarsest in it  becomes faeces, what is medium becomes flesh and what is  subtlest becomes mind.

2.   “Water when drunk becomes threefold. What is coarsest in it  becomes urine, what is medium becomes blood and what is  subtlest becomes prana.

3.   “Fire when eaten becomes threefold. What is coarsest in it  becomes bone, what is medium becomes marrow and what is  subtlest becomes speech.

4.   “The mind, my dear, consists of food, the prana of water and  speech of heat.”  “Please, venerable Sir, instruct me further.”  “So be it, my dear”

Chapter VI � The Physical Nature of the Mind, the Prana  and Speech 

1.   “That, my dear, which is the subtlest part of curds rises, when  they are churned and becomes butter.

2.   “In the same manner, my dear, that which is the subtlest part of  the food that is eaten rises and becomes mind.

3.   “The subtlest part of the water that is drunk rises and becomes  prana.

4.   “The subtlest part of the fire that is eaten rises and becomes  speech.

5.   “Thus, my dear, the mind consists of food, the prana consists of  water and speech consists of fire.”  “Please, venerable Sir, instruct me further.”  “So be it, my dear”

Chapter VII � How the Mind consists of Food 

1.   “A person, my dear, consists of sixteen parts. Do not eat any  food for fifteen days, but drink as much water as you like.  Since the prana consists of water, it will not be cut off if you  drink water.”

2.   Svetaketu did not eat any food for fifteen days. Then he came  to his father and said: “What, Sir, shall I recite?”  His father said: “The Rik, Yagus and Saman verses.”  He replied: “They do not occur to me, Sir.”

3.   His father said to him: “Just as, my dear, of a great blazing fire  a single coal, the size of a firefly, may be left, which would not  burn much more than that, even so, my dear, of your sixteen  parts only one part is left; and therefore with that one part you  do not remember the Vedas. Now go and eat and you will  understand me.”

4.   Svetaketu ate and approached his father. Then whatever his  father asked him, he showed that he knew it.

5�6.   Then his father said to him: “Just as, my dear, of a great lighted  fire a single coal the size of a firefly, if left, may be made to  blaze up again by adding grass to it and will thus burn much  more,  “Even so, my dear; of your sixteen parts only one part was left  and that, when strengthened by food, blazed up. With it you  now remember the Vedas. Therefore, my dear, the mind  consists of food, the prana consists of water and speech consists  of fire.”  After that he understood what his father said, yea, he  understood it.  

Chapter VIII � Concerning Sleep, Hunger, Thirst and  Death 

1.   Uddalaka the son of Aruna said to his son Svetaketu: “Learn  from me, my dear, the true nature of sleep. When a person has  entered into deep sleep, as it is called, then, my dear, he  becomes united with Pure Being (Sat), he has gone to his own  Self. That is why they say he is in deep sleep (svapiti); it is  because he has gone (apita) to his own (svam).

2.   “Just as a bird tied by a string to the hand of the bird�catcher  first flies in every direction and then finding no rest anywhere,  settles down at the place where it is bound, so also the mind  (i.e. the individual soul reflected in the mind), my dear, after  flying in every direction and finding no rest anywhere, settles  down in the Prana (i.e. Pure Being); for the mind (the  individual soul) is fastened to the Prana (Pure Being).

3.   “Learn from me, my dear, what hunger and thirst are. When a  man is hungry, as they say, it is water that has led (i.e. carried  away) what was eaten. Therefore, just as they speak of a leader  of cows, a leader of horses, a leader of men, so do they speak of  water as the leader of food. So, my dear, know this offshoot  (i.e. the body) to have sprung forth from a cause, for it cannot  be without a root.

4.   “And where could its root be except in food (earth)? And in the  same way, my dear, as food too is an offshoot, seek for water as  its root. And as water too, my dear, is an offshoot, seek for fire  as its root. And as fire too, my dear, is an offshoot, seek for  Being (Sat) as its root. Yes, all these creatures, my dear, have  their root in Being, they dwell in Being, they finally rest in  Being.

5.   “When a man is said to be thirsty, it is fire that has led (i.e.  carried away) what was drunk by him. Therefore as they speak  of a leader of cows, a leader of horses, a leader of men, so do  they speak of fire as the leader of water. So, my dear, know this  offshoot (the body) to have sprung forth from a cause, for it  cannot be without a root.

6.   “And where could its root be except in water? And in the same  way, my dear, as water is an offshoot, seek for fire as its root.  And as fire too, my dear, is an offshoot, seek for Being as its  root. Yes, my dear, all these creatures have their root in Being,  they dwell in Being, they finally rest in Being.  “And how these three deities (fire, water and earth), on  reaching a human being, become each of them tripartite has  already been said. When a person departs hence, his speech  merges in his mind, his mind in his prana, his prana in heat  (fire) and the heat in the Highest Being.

7.   “Now, that which is the subtle essence�in it all that exists has  its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art,  Svetaketu.”  “Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the  son.  “So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

Chapter IX � The Absence of Individuality in Deep Sleep  

1�2.   “As bees, my dear, make honey by collecting the juices of trees  located at different places and reduce them to one form,  “And as these juices have no discrimination so as to be able to  say: �I am the juice of this tree,� or �I am the juice of that  tree��even so, indeed, my dear, all these creatures, though  they reach Pure Being, do not know that they have reached  Pure Being.

3.   “Whatever these creatures are, here in this world�a tiger, a  lion, a wolf, a boar, a worm, a fly, a gnat, or a mosquito�that  they become again.

4.   “Now, that which is the subtle essence�in it all that exists has  its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art,  Svetaketu.”  “Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the  son.  “So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

Chapter X � The Absence of Particularized Consciousness  in Deep Sleep  

1�2.   “These rivers, my dear, flow�the eastern toward the east and  the western toward the west. They arise from the sea and flow  into the sea. Just as these rivers, while they are in the sea, do  not know: �I am this river� or �I am that river,�  “Even so, my dear, all these creatures, even though they have  come from Pure Being, do not know that they have come from  Pure Being. Whatever these creatures are, here in this world�a  tiger, a lion, a wolf a boar, a worm, a fly, a gnat, or a mosquito,  that they become again.

3.   “Now, that which is the subtle essence�in it all that exists has  its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art,  Svetaketu.”  “Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the  son.  “So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

Chapter XI � The Indestructibility of the Jiva 

1.   “If, my dear, someone were to strike at the root of this large  tree here, it would bleed but live. If he were to strike at the  middle, it would bleed but live. If he were to strike at the top, it  would bleed but live. Pervaded by the living self, that tree  stands firm, drinking in again and again its nourishment and  rejoicing.

2.   “But if the life (i.e. living self) leaves one of its branches, that  branch withers; if it leaves a second, that branch withers; if it  leaves a third, that branch withers. If it leaves the whole tree,  the whole three withers.

3.   “In exactly the same manner, my dear,” said he, “know this:  This body dies, bereft of the living self; but the living self dies  not.  “Now, that which is the subtle essence�in it all that exists has  its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art,  Svetaketu.”  “Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the  son.  “So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

Chapter XII � The Birth of the Gross from the Subtle 

1.   “Bring me a fruit of that nyagrodha (banyan) tree.”  “Here it is� venerable Sir.” “Break it.”  “It is broken, venerable Sir.”  “What do you see there?”  “These seeds, exceedingly small,  “Break one of these, my son.”  “It is broken, venerable Sir.”  “What do you see there?”  “Nothing at all, venerable Sir.”

2.   The father said: “That subtle essence, my dear, which you do  not perceive there�from that very essence this great nyagrodha  arises.  Believe me, my dear.

3.   “Now, that which is the subtle essence�in it all that exists has  its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art,  Svetaketu.”  “Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the  son.  “So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

Chapter XIII � The Invisibility of an Existent Object 

1.   “Place this salt in water and then come to me in the morning.”  The son did as he was told.  The father said to him: “My son, bring me the salt which you  placed in the water last night.”  Looking for it, the son did not find it, for it was completely  dissolved.

2.   The father said: “My son, take a sip of water from the surface.  How is it?”  “It is salt.”  “Take a sip from the middle. How is it?”  “It is salt.”  “Take a sip from the bottom. How is it?”  “It is salt.”  “Throw it away and come to me.”  The son did as he was told, saying: “The salt was there all the  time.”  Then the father said: “Here also, my dear, in this body you do  not perceive Sat (Being); but It is indeed there.”

3.   “Now, that which is the subtle essence�in it all that exists has  its self. That is the True. That is the Self That thou art,  Svetaketu.”  “Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the  son.  “So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

Chapter XIV � The Means of Self�Knowledge 

1.   “Just as someone, my dear, might lead a person, with his eyes  covered, away from the country of the Gandharas and leave  him in a place where there were no human beings; and just as  that person would turn toward the east, or the north, or the  south, or the west, shouting: �I have been brought here with my  eyes covered, I have been left here with my eyes covered!�

2.   “And as thereupon someone might loosen the covering and say  to him: �Gandhara is in that direction; go that way�; and as  thereupon, having been informed and being capable of  judgement, he would, by asking his way from one village to  another, arrive at last at Gandhara�in exactly the same manner  does a man who has found a teacher to instruct him obtain the  true knowledge. For him there is delay only so long as he is not  liberated from the body; then he reaches perfection.

3.   “Now, that which is the subtle essence�in it all that exists has  its self. That is the True. That is the Self That thou art,  Svetaketu.”  “Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the  son.  “So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

Chapter XV � Ultimate Liberation 

1.   “Around a dying person afflicted with illness, my dear, his  relatives gather and ask: �Do you know me? Do you know me?�  He knows them as long as his speech is not merged in his mind,  his mind in his prana (breath), his prana in heat (fire) and the  heat in the Highest Deity.

2.   “But when his speech is merged in his mind, his mind in his  prana, his prana in heat and the heat in the Highest Deity, then  he does not know them.

3.   “Now, that which is the subtle essence�in it all that exists has  its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art,  Svetaketu.”  “Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the son  “So be it, my dear;” the father replied.

Chapter XVI � Liberation for the Knower of Brahman 

1.   “My dear, they (i.e. the police) bring a man whom they have  seized by the hand and say: �He has taken something, he has  committed a theft.� When he denies it, they say: �Heat the axe  for him.� If he has committed the theft but denies it, then he  makes himself a liar. Being false�minded, he covers himself  with falsehood, grasps the heated axe and is burnt. Then he is  killed.

2.   “But if he did not commit the theft, then he makes himself what  he really is. Being true�minded, he covers himself with truth,  grasps the heated axe and is not burnt. He is released.

3.   “As that truthful man is not burnt so also one who has known  Sat is not born again. Thus in That (Sat) all that exists has its  self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art,  Svetaketu.”

Part Seven

Chapter I � Dialogue between Narada and Sanatkumara 

1.   Om. Narada approached Sanatkumara as a pupil and said:  “Venerable Sir, please teach me.”  Sanatkumara said to him: “Please tell me what you already  know.  Then I shall tell you what is beyond.”

2.   Narada said: “Venerable Sir, I know the Rig�Veda, the  Yajur�Veda, the Sama�Veda, the Atharva�Veda as the  fourth Veda, the epics (Puranas) and ancient lore (Itihasa) as  the fifth, the Veda of the Vedas (i.e. grammar), the rules of the  sacrifices by which the Manes are gratified, the science of  numbers, the science of portents, the science of time, logic,  ethics, etymology, Brahma�vidya (i.e. the science of  pronunciation, ceremonials, prosody, etc.), the science of  elemental spirits, the science of weapons, astronomy, the  science of serpents and the fine arts. All this I know, venerable  Sir.

3.   “But, venerable Sir, with all this I know words only; I do not  know the Self. I have heard from men like you that he who  knows the Self overcomes sorrow. I am one afflicted with  sorrow. Do you, venerable Sir, help me to cross over to the  other side of sorrow.”  Sanatkumara said to him: “Whatever you have read is only a  name.

4.   “Verily, a name is the Rig�Veda; so also are the Yajur�  Veda, the Sama�Veda, the Atharva�Veda as the fourth Veda,  the epics and the ancient lore as the fifth, the Veda of the  Vedas, the rules of the sacrifices by which the Manes are  gratified, the science of numbers, the science of portents, the  science of time, logic, ethics, etymology, Brahma�vidya, the  science of elemental spirits, the science of weapons, astronomy,  the science of serpents and the fine arts.  “Meditate on the name.

5.   “He who meditates on a name as Brahman can, of his own free  will, reach as far as the name reaches�he who meditates on a  name as Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than a  name?”  “Of course there is something greater than a name.” “Please tell  that to me, venerable Sir.”

Chapter II � Speech as Brahman 

1.   “Speech is, verily, greater than a name. Speech makes one  understand the Rig�Veda, the Yajur�Veda, the Sama�Veda,  the Atharva�Veda as the fourth, the epics and the ancient lore  as the fifth, the Veda of the Vedas, the rules of sacrifices by  which the Manes are gratified, the science of numbers, the  science of portents, the science of time, logic, ethics,  etymology, Brahma�vidya, the science of elemental spirits,  the science of weapons, astronomy, the science of serpents and  the fine arts, as well as heaven, earth, air, akasa, water, fire,  gods, men, cattle, birds, herbs, trees, animals, together with  worms, flies and ants, as also righteousness and  unrighteousness, the true and the false, the good and the bad,  the pleasant and the unpleasant.  “Verily, if there were no speech, neither righteousness nor  unrighteousness would be known, neither the true nor the false,  neither the pleasant nor the unpleasant.  “Speech, verily, makes us know all this. Meditate upon speech.

2.   “He who meditates on speech as Brahman can, of his own free  will, reach as far as speech reaches�he who meditates on  speech as Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than  speech?”  “Of course there is something greater than speech.”  “Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

Chapter III � Mind as Brahman 

1.   “The mind is, verily, greater than speech. Just as the closed fist  holds two amalakas, or two plums, or two aksha fruits, so does  the mind hold speech and a name. For when a man thinks in his  mind that he would read the sacred hymns, then he reads them.  When he thinks in his mind that he would perform actions, then  he performs them. When he thinks in his mind that he would  have sons and cattle, then he desires them. When he thinks in  his mind that he would have this world and the other, then he  desires them. Mind, indeed, is the self; mind is the world; mind  is Brahman.  “Meditate on the mind.

2.   “He who meditates on mind as Brahman can, of his own free  will, reach as far as mind reaches�he who meditates on mind  as Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than  mind?”  “Of course there is something greater than mind.”  “Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

Chapter IV � Will as Brahman 

1.   “Will (Samkalpa) is, verily, greater than mind. For when a man  wills, then he thinks in his mind, then he utters speech and then  he employs speech in the recital of a name. The sacred hymns  are included in a name and all sacrifices are included in the  sacred hymns.

2.   “Will, indeed, is the goal of all these beginning with mind and  ending in sacrifice; from will they arise and in will they all  abide. Heaven and earth willed, air and akasa willed, water and  fire willed. Through the will of heaven and earth, etc. the rain  wills; through the will of the rain, food wills; through the will  of food, the pranas will; through the will of the pranas, the  sacred hymns will; through the will of the sacred hymns, the  sacrifices will; through the will of the sacrifices, the world  wills; through the will of the world, everything wills. Such is  will.  Meditate on will.

3.   “He who meditates on will as Brahman can, of his own free  will, reach as far as will reaches�he who meditates on will as  Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than  will?”  “Of course there is something greater than will.”  “Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

Chapter V � Consideration as Brahman 

1.   “Consideration (Chitta) is, verily, greater than will. For when a  man considers, then he wills, then he thinks in his mind, then  he utters speech, then he engages speech in the recitation of a  name. The sacred hymns are included in a name and all  sacrifices are included in the sacred hymns.

2.   “Consideration is, indeed, the goal of all these beginning with  mind and ending in sacrifice; from consideration they arise and  in consideration they all abide. Therefore if a person is without  consideration, even though he possesses much knowledge,  people say of him that he is nothing and whatever he knows is  useless; for if he were really learned, he would not be so  inconsiderate. But if a person is considerate, though he knows  but little, to him people are eager to listen. Consideration,  indeed, is the goal of all these; consideration is the self;  consideration is the support.  Meditate on consideration.

3.   “He who meditates on consideration as Brahman, he, being  permanent, firm and undistressed, obtains the worlds which are  permanent, firm and undistressed; he can, of his own free win,  reach as far as consideration reaches�he who meditates on  consideration as Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than  consideration?”  “Of course there is something greater than consideration.”  “Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

Chapter VI � Meditation as Brahman 

1.   “Meditation (Dhyana) is, verily, greater than consideration.  Earth meditates, as it were. The mid�region meditates, as it  were. Heaven meditates, as it were. The waters meditate, as it  were. The mountains meditate, as it were. The gods meditate,  as it were. Men meditate, as it were. Therefore he who, among  men, attains greatness here on earth seems to have obtained a  share of meditation. Thus while small people are quarrelsome,  abusive and slandering, great men appear to have obtained a  share of meditation. Meditate on meditation.

2.   “He who meditates on meditation as Brahman, can, of his own  free will, reach as far as meditation reaches�he who meditates  on meditation as Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than  meditation?”  “Of course there is something greater than meditation.”  “Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

Chapter VII � Understanding as Brahman

1.   “Understanding is, verily, greater than meditation.  Understanding makes one understand the Rig�Veda, the  Yajur�Veda, the Sama�Veda, the Atharva�Veda as the  fourth, the epics and the ancient lore as the fifth, the Veda of  the Vedas, the rules of sacrifices by which the Manes are  gratified, the science of numbers, the science of portents, the  science of time, logic, ethics, etymology, Brahma�vidya, the  science of elemental spirits, the science of weapons, astronomy,  the science of serpents and the fine arts; heaven, earth, air,  water, fire, gods, men, cattle, birds, herbs, trees; animals,  together with worms, flies and ants; and also righteousness and  unrighteousness, the true and the false, the good and the bad,  the pleasant and the unpleasant, food and taste, this world and  yonder world. Meditate on understanding.

2.   “He who meditates on understanding as Brahman attains the  worlds of understanding and knowledge and can, of his own  free will, reach as far as understanding reaches�he who  meditates on understanding as Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than  understanding?”  “Of course there is something greater than understanding.”  “Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

Chapter VIII � Strength as Brahman 

1.   “Strength is, verily, greater than understanding. One strong man  causes a hundred men of understanding to tremble. When a  man is strong he can rise. If he rises he can attend on the  teachers. If he attends on them he can become their intimate  companion as a pupil. If he is their intimate companion he can  watch their conduct, listen to their instruction, reflect on what  he hears, become convinced of what he reflects on, act and  enjoy the result of action. By strength the earth stands firm, by  strength the mid�region, by strength heaven, by strength the  mountains, by strength the gods and men, by strength cattle and  birds, herbs and trees and animals, together with worms, flies  and ants, by strength the world stands firm. Meditate upon  strength.”

2.   “He who meditates on strength as Brahman can, of his own free  will, reach as far as strength reaches�he who meditates on  strength as Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than  strength?”  “Of course there is something greater than strength.”  “Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

Chapter IX � Food as Brahman 

1.   “Food is, verily, greater than strength. Therefore if a man  abstains from food for ten days, even though he might live, yet  he would not be able to see, hear, reflect, become convinced,  act, or enjoy the result. But when he obtains food, he is able to  see, hear, reflect, become convinced, act and enjoy the result.

2.   “He who meditates on food as Brahman obtains the world rich  in food and drink; he can, of his own free will, reach as far as  food reaches�he who meditates on food as Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than  food?”  “Of course there is something greater than food.”  “Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

Chapter X � Water as Brahman 

1.   “Water is, verily, greater than food. Therefore if there is not  sufficient rain, then living creatures are afflicted with the  thought that there will be less food. But if there is sufficient  rain, then living creatures rejoice in the thought that there will  be much food. It is water that assumes the form of this earth,  this mid�region, this heaven, these mountains, these gods and  men, cattle and birds, herbs and trees and animals, together  with worms, flies and ants. Water indeed is all these forms.  Meditate on water.

2.   “He who meditates on water as Brahman obtains all his desires  and becomes satisfied; he can, of his own free will, reach as far  as water reaches�he who meditates on water as Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than  water?”  “Of course there is something greater than water.”  “Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

Chapter XI � Fire as Brahman 

1.   “Fire is, verily, greater than water. For, having seized the air, it  warms the akasa. Then people say: �It is hot, it burns; it will  rain.� Thus does fire first manifest itself and then create water.  Furthermore, thunderclaps roll with lightning upward and  across the sky. Then people say: �There is lightning, there is  thunder; it will rain.� Here also does fire first manifest itself and  then create water. Meditate on fire.

2.   “He who meditates on fire as Brahman becomes radiant himself  and obtains radiant worlds, full of light and free from darkness;  he can, of his own free will, reach as far as fire reaches�he  who meditates on fire as Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than  fire?”  “Of course there is something greater than fire.”  “Please tell that to me, Venerable Sir.”

Chapter XII � The Akasa as Brahman 

1.   “The akasa is, verily, greater than fire. For in the akasa exist  both the sun and the moon, lightning, stars and fire. It is  through the akasa that a person calls another; it is through the  akasa that the other hears; it is through the akasa that the person  hears back. In the akasa we rejoice when we are together and in  the akasa we rejoice not when we are separated. In the akasa  everything is born and toward the akasa all things grow.  Meditate upon the akasa.

2.   “He who meditates on the akasa as Brahman obtains the worlds  extending far and wide, luminous, free from pain and spacious;  he can, of his own free will, reach as far as the akasa reaches�  he who meditates on the akasa as Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than the  akasa?”  “Of course there is something greater than the akasa.”  “Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

Chapter XIII � Memory as Brahman 

1.   “Memory is, verily, greater than the akasa. Therefore even  when many people assemble, if they had no memory they  would not hear anyone at all, they would not think, they would  not understand. But surely, if they had memory, they would  hear, think and understand. Through memory one knows one�s  sons, through memory one�s cattle. Meditate on memory.

2.   “He who meditates on memory as Brahman can, of his own  free will, reach as far as memory reaches�he who meditates  on memory as Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than  memory?”  “Of course there is something greater than memory.”  “Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

Chapter XIV � Hope as Brahman

1.   “Hope is, verily, greater than memory. Kindled by hope, a  person endowed with memory reads the sacred hymns,  performs sacrifices, desires sons and cattle; desires this world  and the other. Meditate on hope.

2.   “He who meditates on hope as Brahman�all his desires are  fulfilled through hope, his prayers are not in vain; he can, of his  own free will, reach as far as hope reaches�he who meditates  on hope as Brahman.”  Narada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than  hope?”  “Of course there is something greater than hope.”  “Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

Chapter XV � The Prana as Brahman 

1.   “The prana is, verily, greater than hope. As the spokes of a  wheel are fastened to the nave, so are all these beginning with  the name and ending with hope fastened to the prana. The prana  moves by the prana. The prana gives the prana to the prana.  The prana is the father, the prana is the mother, the prana is the  brother, the prana is the sister, the prana is the teacher, the  prana is the brahmin.

2.   “If one says something unbecoming to a father, mother,  brother, sister, teacher, or brahmin, then people say: �Shame on  you! Verily, you are a slayer of your father, a slayer of your  mother, a slayer of your brother, a slayer of your sister, a slayer  of your teacher, a slayer of a brahmin.�

3.   “But if; when the prana has departed from them, one shoves  them together with a poker and burns every bit of them, no one  would say: �You are a slayer of your father, a slayer of your  mother, a slayer of your brother, a slayer of your sister, a slayer  of your teacher, a slayer of a brahmin.”

4.   “The prana, verily, is all this. He (i.e. the knower of the prana)  who sees this, reflects on this, is convinced of this, becomes an  ativadi (superior speaker). If people say to such a man: �You  are an ativadi,� he may say: �Yes, I am an ativadi�; he need not  deny it.”

Chapter XVI � The Knowledge of the Truth 

1.   “But in reality he is an ativadi who has become an ativadi by  the knowledge of the True.”  “May I, venerable Sir, become an ativadi by the knowledge of  the True.”  “But one should desire to know the True.”  “Venerable Sir, I desire to know the True.”

Chapter XVII � Truth depends upon Understanding 

1.   Sanatkumara said: “When one understands the True, only then  does one declare the True. One who does not understand the  True does not declare It. Only one who understands It declares  the True. One must desire to understand this understanding.”  “Venerable Sir, I desire to understand.”

Chapter XVIII � Understanding depends upon Reflection

1.   “When one reflects, only then does one understand. One Who  does not reflect does not understand. Only one who reflects  understands. One must desire to understand this reflection.”  “Venerable Sir, I desire to understand reflection.”

Chapter XIX � Reflection depends upon Faith

1.   “When one has faith, only then does one reflect. One who does  not have faith does not reflect. Only one who has faith reflects.  One must desire to understand faith.”  “Venerable Sir, I desire to understand faith.”

Chapter XX � Faith depends upon Single�Mindedness 

1.   “When one is single�minded in one�s devotion to the teacher,  only then does one have faith. One who does not have single�  mindedness does not have faith. Only one who has single�  mindedness has faith. One must desire to understand single�  mindedness.”  “Venerable Sir, I desire to understand single�mindedness.”

Chapter XXI � Single�Mindedness depends upon  Concentration 

1.   “When one performs one�s duties (i.e. practises concentration),  only then does one have single�mindedness. One who does  not perform his duties does not have single�mindedness. Only  one who performs his duties has single�mindedness. One  must desire to understand the performance of duties.”  “Venerable Sir, I desire to understand the performance of  duties.”

Chapter XXII � Concentration depends upon Bliss 

1.   “When one obtains bliss, only then does one perform one�s  duties. One who does not obtain bliss does not perform his  duties. Only one who obtains bliss performs his duties. One  must desire to understand bliss.”  “Venerable Sir, I desire to understand bliss.”

Chapter XXIV � The Infinite is Bliss 

1.   “The infinite is bliss. There is no bliss in anything finite. Only  the Infinite is bliss. One must desire to understand the Infinite.”  “Venerable Sir, I desire to understand the Infinite.”

Chapter XXIV � The Infinite and the Finite 

1.   “Where one sees nothing else, hears nothing else, understands  nothing else�that is the Infinite. Where one sees something  else, hears something else, understands something else�that is  the finite. The Infinite is immortal, the finite mortal.”  “Venerable Sir, in what does the Infinite find Its support?”  “In Its own greatness�or not even in greatness.”

2.   “Here on earth people describe cows and horses, elephants and  gold, slaves and wives, fields and houses, as �greatness.� I do  not mean this,” he said, “for in such cases one thing finds its  support in another. But what I say is:

Chapter XXV � Instruction about the Infinite 

1.   “That infinite, indeed, is below. It is above. It is behind. It is  before. It is to the south. It is to the north. The Infinite, indeed,  is all this.  “Next follows the instruction about the Infinite with reference  to �I�:  I, indeed, am below. I am above. I am behind. I am before. I am  to the south. I am to the north. I am, indeed, all this.

2.   “Next follows the instruction about the Infinite with reference  to the Self: The Self indeed, is below. It is above. It is behind. It  is before. It is to the south. It is to the north. The Self, indeed, is  all this.  “Verily, he who sees this, reflects on this and understands this  delights in the Self sports with the Self, rejoices in the Self  revels in the Self. Even while living in the body he becomes a  self�ruler. He wields unlimited freedom in all the worlds.  ��But those who think differently from this have others for their  rulers they live in perishable worlds. They have no freedom in  all the worlds.”

Chapter XXVI � Self�knowledge 

1.   “For him who sees this, reflects on this and understands this,  the prana springs from the Self, hope springs from the Self,  memory springs from the Self, the akasa springs from the Self,  fire springs from the Self; water springs from the Self;  appearance and disappearance spring from the Self, food  springs from the Self, strength springs from the Self;  understanding springs from the Self, meditation springs from  the Self, consideration springs from the Self, will springs from  the Self; mind springs from the Self speech springs from the  Self, the name springs from the Self the sacred hymns spring  from the Self the sacrifices spring from the Self�ay, all this  springs from the Self.”

2.   “On this there is the following verse:  “�The knower of Truth does not see death or disease or sorrow.  The knower of Truth sees everything and obtains everything  everywhere.�  “He (the knower) is one before the creation, becomes three,  becomes five, becomes seven, becomes nine; then again he is  called eleven, one hundred and ten and one thousand and  twenty.  “Now is described the discipline for inner purification by which  Self�Knowledge is attained: When the food is pure, the mind  becomes pure. When the mind is pure the memory becomes  firm. When the memory is firm all ties are loosened.”  The venerable Sanatkumara showed Narada, after his blemishes  had been wiped out, the other side of darkness. They call  Sanatkumara Skanda, yea, Skanda they call him.

Part Eight 

Chapter I � Brahman in the Heart 

1.   Om. There is in this city of Brahman an abode, the small lotus  of the heart; within it is a small akasa. Now what exists within  that small akasa, that is to be sought after, that is what one  should desire to understand.

2�3.   If they should say to him: “Now, with regard to the abode, the  small lotus, in this city of Brahman and the small akasa within  it�what is there in it that is to be sought after and what is there  that one should desire to understand?”  Then he (the teacher) should say: “As far as, verily, this great  akasa extends, so far extends the akasa within the heart. Both  heaven and earth are contained within it, both fire and air, both  sun and moon, both lightning and stars; and whatever belongs  to him (i.e. the embodied creature) in this world and whatever  does not, all that is contained within it (i.e. the akasa in the  heart).”

4.   If they (the pupils) should say: “If everything that exists�all  beings and all desires�is contained in this city of Brahman,  then what is left of it when old age overcomes it or when it  perishes?”

5.   Then he (the teacher) should say: “With the old age of the  body, That (i.e. Brahman, described as the akasa in the heart)  does not age; with the death of the body, That does not die.  That Brahman and not the body is the real city of Brahman. In  It all desires are contained. It is the Self�free from sin, free  from old age, free from death, free from grief free from hunger,  free from thirst; Its desires come true, Its thoughts come true.  Just as, here on earth, people follow as they are commanded by  a leader and depend upon whatever objects they desire, be it a  country or a piece of land so also those who are ignorant of the  Self depend upon other objects and experience the result of  their good and evil deeds.

6.   “And just as, here on earth, whatever is earned through work  perishes, so does the next world, won by virtuous deeds, perish.  Those who depart hence without having realized the Self and  these true desires�for them there is no freedom in all the  worlds. But those who depart hence after having realized the  Self and these true desires�for them there is freedom in all the  worlds.

Chapter II � The Fulfilment of Desires through Self�Knowledge 

1.   “If he desires the World of the Manes, by his mere thought the  Manes come to him. Having obtained the world of the Manes  he is happy.

2.   “And if he desires the world of the mothers, by his mere  thought the mothers come to him. Having obtained the world of  the mothers, he is happy.

3.   “And if he desires the world of the brothers, by his mere  thought the brothers come to him. Having obtained the world of  the brothers, he is happy.

4.   “And if he desires the world of the sisters, by his mere thought  the sisters come to him. Having obtained the world of the  sisters, he is happy.

5.   “And if he desires the world of the friends, by his mere thought  the friends come to him. Having obtained the world of the  friends, he is happy.

6.   “And if he desires the world of perfumes and garlands, by his  mere thought perfumes and garlands come to him. Having  obtained the world of perfumes and garlands, he is happy.

7.   “And if he desires the world of food and drink, by his mere  thought food and drink come to him. Having obtained the  world of food and drink, he is happy.

8.   “And if he desires the world of song and music, by his mere  thought song and music come to him. Having obtained the  world of song and music, he is happy.

9.   “And if he desires the world of women, by his mere thought  women come to him. Having obtained the world of women, he  is happy.

10.   “Whatever country he longs for, whatever objects he desires, by  his mere thought all these come to him. Having obtained them,  he is happy.

Chapter III � The Serene Self and Satya Brahman 

1.   “These true desires are covered by what is false. Though they  exist always, yet they have a covering which is false. Thus,  whosoever belonging to the embodied creature has departed  from this life, him he cannot see in this world with his eyes.

2.   “Those of his fellows who belong to him here and those who  are dead and whatever else there is which he wishes for and  does not obtain�he finds all that by going in there (i.e. into his  own Self). For there, indeed, lie those true desires of his,  covered by what is false.  “As people who do not know the spot where a treasure of gold  has been hidden somewhere in the earth, walk over it again and  again without finding it, so all these creatures day after day go  into the World of Brahman and yet do not find it, because they  are carried away by untruth.

3.   “That Self abides in the heart. The etymological explanation of  heart is this: This one (ayam) is in the heart (hridi); therefore It  is called the heart (hridayam). He who knows this goes every  day in deep sleep to Heaven (i.e. Brahman, dwelling in the  heart).

4.   “Now, this serene being, after rising from this physical body  and attaining the Highest Light, reaches his own true form. This  is the Self.” Thus he (i.e. the teacher, questioned by his pupils)  spoke. Continuing, he said: “This is the immortal, the fearless.  This is Brahman. And of this Brahman the name is Satyam, the  True.”

5.   This name Satyam consists of three syllables: Sat, ti and yam.  That which is Sat signifies the Immortal; and that which is ti is  the mortal; and yam binds them both. Because this syllable  binds both, therefore it is called yam. He who knows this goes  every day in deep sleep to Heaven (i.e. Brahman, dwelling in  the heart).

Chapter IV � Brahman as a Dam 

1.   The self is a dam, a separating boundary, for keeping these  worlds apart. This dam is not passed by day and night, by old  age, death and grief, or by good and evil deeds. All evils turn  back from It, for the World of Brahman is free from all evil.

2.   Therefore, having reached this dam, he who is blind ceases to  be blind, he who is miserable ceases to be miserable, he who is  afflicted with disease ceases to be afflicted. Therefore, having  reached this dam, the night becomes day; for the World of  Brahman is lighted once for all.

3.   That World of Brahman belongs to those who realize It by  means of continence (brahmacharya)�for them there is  freedom in all the worlds.

Chapter V � Continence 

1.   Now, what people call yajna (sacrifice), that is really  continence. For he who knows Brahman obtains that World of  Brahman, which others obtain through sacrifice, by means of  continence.  What people call ishta (worship), that is really continence. For  having desired (ishtva) the Knowledge of the Self; by means of  continence one realizes the Self.

2.   Now, what people call the Satrayana sacrifice, that is really  continence. For by means of continence one obtains from the  True (Sat) the safety (trana) of the self.  What people call the vow of silence (mauna), that is really  continence. For after knowing the Self from the scriptures one  meditates (manute) on It.

3.   Now, what people call the vow of fasting (anasakayana), that is  really continence. For that Self does not perish (na nasyati)  which one realizes by means of continence.

4.   The World of Brahman belongs to those who obtain by means  of continence the seas Ara and Nya in the World of Brahman.  For them there is freedom in all the worlds.

Chapter VI � The Course after Death for the Illumined 

1.   Now, those arteries of the heart are filled with the essences of  brown, white, blue, yellow and red liquid substances. Verily,  the sun yonder is brown, it is white, it is blue, it is yellow, it is  red.

2.   As a long highway runs between two villages, this one and that  yonder, so do the rays of the sun go to both worlds, this one and  that yonder. They start from yonder sun and enter into these  arteries; they start from these arteries and enter into yonder sun.

3.   When a man is asleep, with the senses withdrawn and serene  and sees no dream, then he has entered into these arteries. Then  no evil touches him, for he has obtained the light of the sun.

4.   And when he becomes weak, then those sitting around him say:  “Do you know me? Do you know me?” As long as he has not  departed from this body, he knows them.

5.   When he departs from the body if he is a mere ritualist and  ignorant of Brahman he then goes upward by these rays toward  the worlds which he has gained by his meritorious work. Or if  he is a knower of the doctrines of the akasa in the lotus of the  heart, he then meditates on Om and thus secures entrance into  Brahmaloka. Or if he is ignorant he attains lower bodies. The  knower attains the solar orb as quickly as one directs one�s  mind from one object to another. This indeed is the door to the  World of Brahman for those who know; for the ignorant it is  closed.

6.   On this there is the following verse:  “There are one hundred and one arteries of the heart, one of  which pierces the crown of the head. Going upward by it, a  man at death attains immortality. Other arteries, going in  different directions, only serve as channels for his departing  from the body, yea, only serve as channels for his departing  from the body.”

Chapter VII � The Person in the Eye 

1.   Prajapati said: “The Self which is free from sin, free from old  age, free from death, free from grief, free from hunger, free  from thirst, whose desires come true and whose thoughts come  true�That it is which should be searched out, That it is which  one should desire to understand. He who has known this Self  from the scriptures and a teacher and understood It obtains all  the worlds and all desires.

2.   The devas (gods) and asuras (demons) both heard these words  and said: “Well, let us search out this Self by searching out  which one obtains all the worlds and all desires.”  Indra, among the gods, went forth and Virochana, among the  demons. Without communicating with each other, the two came  into the presence of Prajapati, fuel in hand.

3.   They dwelt there for thirty�two years, practising  brahmacharya. Then Prajapati said to them: “For what purpose  have you both been living here?”  They said: “A saying of yours is being repeated by learned  people: �The Self which is free from sin, free from old age, free  from death, free from grief, free from hunger, free from thirst,  whose desires come true and whose thoughts come true�That  it is which should be searched out, That it is which one should  desire to understand. He who has known this Self and  understood It obtains all the worlds and all desires.� Now, we  both have dwelt here because we desire that Self.”

4.   Prajapati said to them: “The person that is seen in the eye�that  is the Self.” He further said: “This is immortal, fearless. This is  Brahman.”  They asked: “Venerable Sir, he who is perceived in the water  and he who is perceived in a mirror�which of these is he?”  Prajapati replied: “The same one, indeed, is perceived in all  these.”

Chapter VIII � The Doctrine of the Demons 

1.   Prajapati said: “Look at yourself in a pan of water and then  what you do not understand of the Self come and tell me.”  They cast their glance in a pan of water. Then Prajapati said to  them:  “What do you see?”  They said: “Venerable Sir, we see the entire self even to the  very hairs and nails, a veritable picture.”

2.   Prajapati said to them: “After you have well adorned yourselves  with ornaments, put on your best clothes and cleansed  yourselves, look into the pan of water.”  After having adorned themselves well, put on their best clothes  and cleansed themselves, they looked into the pan of water.  “What do you see?” asked Prajapati.

3.   They said: “Just as we ourselves are well adorned, well dressed  and clean, so, venerable Sir, are these two reflections well  adorned, well dressed and clean.”  Prajapati said: “This is the Self, this is immortal, fearless. This  is Brahman.”  They both went away satisfied in heart.

4.   Prajapati saw them going and said: “They are both going away  without having known and without having realized the Self.  And whoever of these, whether gods or demons, follow this  doctrine shall perish.”  Virochana, satisfied in heart, went to the demons and preached  this doctrine (Upanishad) to them: “The self (i.e. body) alone is  to be worshipped here on earth, the self (i.e. body) alone is to  be served. It is only by worshipping the self here and by  serving the self that one gains both worlds�this and the next.”

5.   Therefore even today they say of one who does not practise  charity, who has no faith and who does not perform sacrifices:  “He is verily a demon”; for such is the doctrine of the demons.  The demons deck the bodies of the dead with garlands and  perfume, with raiment and with ornaments, for they think that  thus they will win the world beyond.

Chapter IX � The Shadow Self is Perishable 

1.   But Indra, even before he had reached the gods, saw this  difficulty: “As this reflection in the water is well adorned when  the body is well adorned, well dressed when the body is well  dressed, clean when the body is clean, so this reflection in the  water will be blind if the body is blind, one�eyed if the body  is one�eyed, crippled if the body is crippled and will perish if  the body perishes.

2.   “I do not see any good in this doctrine.” He returned with fuel  in hand.  To him Prajapati said: “Well, Indra, you went away with  Virochana, satisfied in heart; now for what purpose have you  come back?”  He (Indra) said: “Venerable Sir, as this reflection in the water is  well adorned when the body is well adorned, well dressed when  the body is well dressed, clean when the body is clean, so this  reflection in the water will be blind if the body is blind, one�  eyed if the body is one�eyed, crippled if the body is crippled  and will perish if the body perishes. Therefore I do not see any  good in this doctrine.”

3.   “So it is Indra,” replied Prajapati. “I shall explain the Self to  you further. Live with me another thirty�two years.”  He lived with Prajapati another thirty�two years. Then  Prajapati said to Indra:

Chapter X � The Dream Self  

1�2.   “He who moves about, exalted, in dreams�this is the Self, this  is immortal, fearless. This is Brahman.”  Then Indra went away satisfied in heart. But even before he had  reached the gods, he saw this difficulty: “Although this dream  self is not blind even if the body is blind, nor do its eyes and  nose run when the eyes and nose of the body run; although this  self is not affected by the defects of the body,  “Nor killed when it (the body) is killed, nor one�eyed when it  is one�eyed�yet they kill it (the dream self), as it were; they  chase it, as it were. It becomes conscious of pain, as it were; it  weeps, as it were. I do not see any good in this doctrine.”

3�4.   He returned with fuel in hand. To him Prajapati said: “Well,  Indra, you went away satisfied in heart; now for what purpose  have you come back?”  He (Indra) said: “Venerable Sir, although this dream self is not  blind even if the body is blind, nor do its eyes and nose run  when the eyes and nose of the body run; although this self is  not affected by the defects of the body,  “Nor killed when it (the body) is killed, nor one�eyed when it  is one�eyed�yet they kill it (the dream self), as it were; they  chase it, as it were. It becomes conscious of pain, as it were; it  weeps, as it were. I do not see any good in this.”  “So it is, Indra,” replied Prajapati. “I shall explain the Self  further to you. Live with me another thirty�two years.”  He lived with Prajapati another thirty�two years. Then  Prajapati said to Indra:

Chapter XI � The Self in Dreamless Sleep 

1.   “When a man is asleep, with senses withdrawn and serene and  sees no dream�that is the Self. This is immortal, fearless. This  is Brahman.”  Then Indra went away satisfied in heart. But even before he had  reached the gods, he saw this difficulty: “In truth it (i.e. the self  in dreamless sleep) does not know itself as �I am it,� nor these  other creatures. It has therefore reached in dreamless sleep utter  annihilation, as it were. I do not see any good in this.”

2.   He returned with fuel in hand. To him Prajapati said: “Well,  Indra, you went away satisfied in heart; now for what purpose  have you come back?”  He (Indra) said: “Venerable Sir, in truth it (i.e. the self in  dreamless sleep) does not know itself as �I am it,� nor these  other creatures. It has therefore reached utter annihilation, as it  were. I do not see any good in this.”

3.   “So it is, Indra,” replied Prajapati. “I shall explain the Self  further to you and nothing else. Live with me another five  years.”  Indra lived with Prajapati another five years. This made in all  one hundred and one years. Therefore people say that Indra  lived with Prajapati as a brahmacharin one hundred and one  years.  Then Prajapati said to him:

Chapter XII � The Incorporeal Self 

1.   “O Indra, this body is mortal, always held by death. It is the  abode of the Self which is immortal and incorporeal. The  embodied self is the victim of pleasure and pain. So long as one  is identified with the body, there is no cessation of pleasure and  pain. But neither pleasure nor pain touches one who is not  identified with the body.

2�3.   “The wind is without body; the cloud, lightning and thunder are  without body. Now, as these, arising from yonder akasa and  reaching the highest light, appear in their own forms,  “So does this serene Being, arising from this body and reaching  the Highest Light, appear in His own form. In that state He is  the Highest Person. There He moves about, laughing, playing,  rejoicing�be it with women, chariots, or relatives, never  thinking of the body into which he was born.  “As an animal is attached to a cart, so is the prana (i.e. the  conscious self) attached to the body.

4.   “When the person in the eye resides in the body, he resides  where the organ of sight has entered into the akasa (i.e. the  pupil of the eye); the eye is the instrument of seeing. He who is  aware of the thought: �Let me smell this,� he is the Self; the  nose is the instrument of smelling. He who is aware of the  thought: �Let me speak,� he is the Self; the tongue is the  instrument of speaking. He who is aware of the thought: �Let  me hear,� he is the Self; the ear is the instrument of hearing.

5.   “He who is aware of the thought: �Let me think this,� he is the  Self; the mind is his divine eye. He, the Self sees all these  desires in the World of Brahman through the divine eye, the  mind and rejoices.

6.   “The gods meditate on that Self. Therefore all worlds belong to  them and all desires. He who knows that Self and understands  It obtains all worlds and all desires.” Thus said Prajapati, yea,  thus said Prajapati.

Chapter XIII � A Mantra for Meditation and Repetition 

1.   From the dark I come to the variegated; from the variegated I  come to the Dark. Shaking off evil as a horse shakes dust from  its hair, freeing myself from the body as the moon frees itself  from the mouth of Rahu, I fulfil all ends and obtain the  uncreated World of Brahman.

Chapter XIV � The Prayer of a Seeker of Eternal Life 

1.   That which is called the akasa is the revealer of names and  forms.  That within which these names and forms exist is, verily,  Brahman. That is the Immortal; that is the Self.  Now is stated a mantra: “I come to the assembly, the palace of  Prajapati. I am the glory of the brahmins, the glory of the kings,  the glory of the vaisyas. I wish to obtain that glory. I am the  glory of glories. May I never go to the red and toothless, all�  devouring, slippery place, yea, may I never go to it.”

Chapter XV � The Attainment of Brahmaloka 

1.   Brahma told this knowledge of the Self to Prajapati (Kasyapa),  Prajapati to Manu, Manu to mankind. He who has studied the  Vedas at the house of a teacher, according to the prescribed  rules, during the time left after the performance of his duties to  the teacher; he who, after leaving the teacher�s house, has  settled down into a householder�s life and continued the study  of the Vedas in a sacred spot and made others (i.e. his sons and  disciples) virtuous; he who has withdrawn all the sense�  organs into the Self; he who has not given pain to any creature  except as approved by the scriptures�he who conducts himself  thus, all through his life, reaches the World of Brahman after  death and does not return, yea, does not return.

End of Chhandogya Upanishad  

The Peace Chant 

Om. May the different limbs of my body, my tongue, prana,  eyes, ears and my strength and also all the other sense�organs  be nourished! All, indeed, is Brahman, as is declared in the  Upanishads. May I never deny Brahman! May Brahman never  deny me! May there never be denial on my part! May all the  virtues described in the Upanishads belong to me, who am  devoted to Atman! Yea, may they all belong to me!

Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!