Information About Chandigarh
Chandigarh is a union territory of India, that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana. The name Chandigarh translates as “The Fort of Chandi”. The name was coined from an ancient temple called Chandi Mandir, devoted to the Hindu Goddess Chandi, present in the city’s vicinity. It is occasionally referred to as The City Beautiful. Earlier the Chandigarh Capital region was also called ‘Tricity’ because of Panchkula and Mohali as adjacent cities but with mushrooming of other towns like Zirakpur, Kharar etc. with considerable population it is better called ‘Chandigarh Capital Region’.
As the first planned city of India, Chandigarh is known internationally for its architecture and urban planning. Chandigarh is home to numerous architectural projects of Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret, Matthew Nowicki, and Albert Mayer. As per a study conducted by Ministry of Urban Development, Chandigarh has emerged as the cleanest city in India.
After the partition of British India into the two nations of India and Pakistan in 1947, the region of Punjab was also split between India and Pakistan. The Indian state of Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which became part of Pakistan during the partition. After several plans to make additions to existing cities were found to be infeasible for various reasons, the decision to construct a new and planned city was undertaken.The circle office at Chandigarh started to function in the year 1985.At present the jurisdiction of this circle for archeological work extends to the states of Punjab,Hrayana and Chandigarh.There are 32 protected monuments of National importance in Punjab and 89 in Haryana being maintained by the circle.This is usually referred to as Chandigarh Circle.
Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the Shivalik range of the Himalayas in Northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 44 sq mi or 114 km. and shares its borders with the states of Haryana in the east and Punjab in the north, west and south. The surrounding districts are of Mohali, Patiala and Roopnagar in Punjab and Panchkula and Ambala in Haryana. The boundary of the state of Himachal Pradesh is also minutes away from its north border.
Chandigarh has a humid subtropical climate characterized by a seasonal rhythm: very hot summers, mild winters, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature (-1 °C to 41.2 °C). In winter, pieces of snow sometimes occurs during December and January. The average annual rainfall is 1110.7 mm. The city also receives occasional winter rains from the west.
The government is a major employer in Chandigarh with three governments having their base here. A significant percentage of Chandigarh’s population therefore consists of people who are either working for one of these governments or have retired from government service. For this reason, Chandigarh is often called a ‘Pensioner’s Paradise’. There are about 15 medium to large industrial including two in the Public sector. In addition Chandigarh has over 2500 units are registered under small scale sector. The important industries are paper manufacturing, basic metals and alloys and machinery. Other industries are relating to food products, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. Yet, with a Per capita income (PCI) of 99,262, Chandigarh is the richest city in India. Chandigarh’s gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $2.2 billion in current prices.
Chandigarh IT Park (also Chandigarh Technology Park) is the city’s attempt to break into the IT world. Chandigarh’s infrastructure, proximity to Delhi, Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, and the IT talent pool attracts IT businesses looking for office space in the area. Major Indian firms and multinational corporations to the like of Quark, Infosys, Dell, IBM,TechMahindra have set up base in the city and its suburbs. According to a recent Global Services Survey conducted by Cyber Media, Chandigarh is ranked 9th in the top 50 cities identified globally as ‘emerging outsourcing and IT services destinations.’
Flora and fauna
Most of Chandigarh is covered by dense Banyan and Eucalyptus plantations. Asoka, Cassia, Mulberry and other trees flourish in the forested ecosystem.The city has forests surrounding it which sustain many animal and plant species. Deers, Sambars, Barking Deers, Parrots, Woodpeckers and Peacocks inhabit the protected forests. Sukhna Lake hosts a variety of ducks and geese, and attracts migratory birds from parts of Siberia and Japan in the winter season. A parrot sanctuary located in the city is home to a variety of bird species.